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Protocol - Distress Tolerance

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Description:

The Computerized Mirror Tracing Persistence Task (MTPT-C) is an automated version of the original Mirror Tracing Persistence Task (Quinn et al., 1996), which requires the construction of a mirror box and multiple copies of polygons to be traced. The MTPT-C simplifies the administration and scoring of this task.

In this task, participants are required to trace a red dot along the lines of a geometric shape (e.g., star) using the computer’s mouse. However, the mouse moves the red dot in the reverse direction. Each time the participant moves the mouse out of the lines or hesitates for more than 2 seconds, a buzzer sounds, and the dot moves back to the beginning. Three progressively more difficult shapes are used. The first two rounds last 1 minute each, while the third round of the MTPT-C can last up to 7 minutes. Participants may terminate the task at any point during the third round by pressing on the space bar. Distress tolerance is measured by the latency in seconds to task termination. Additionally, the number of errors per second (i.e., number of times the participant has to return to the starting position during the task, divided by the task time) is recorded to control for effects of skill on persistence.

Specific Instructions:

User can download the program for this task at:

caperlab.net/task-downloads

Protocol:

See above; online download of the program:

caperlab.net/task-downloads

Protocol Name from Source:

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

Computer with a mouse. Instrument is available online.

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Interviewer-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adult

Participants:

Adults

Selection Rationale

Measure of distress tolerance, a personality trait that appears to be related to smoking and tobacco use and behaviors.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Psychology Distress Tolerance Assessment Score 4719167 CDE Browser
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

Not applicable

Source

Computerized Mirror Tracing Persistence Task (MTPT-C)
Center for Addictions, Personality, and Emotion Research (CAPER) website

General References

Original Mirror Tracing Persistence Task (MTPT):

Quinn, E. P., Brandon, T. H., & Copeland, A. L. (1996). Is task persistence related to smoking and substance abuse? The application of learned industriousness theory to addictive behaviors. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 4, 186-190.

Validity of the MTPT:

Brandon, T. H., Herzog, T. A., Juliano, L., Irvin, J. E., Lazev, A., & Simmons, V. N. (2003). Pretreatment task-persistence predicts smoking cessation outcome. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 448-456.

Steinberg, M. L., Williams, J. M., Gandhi, K. K., Foulds, J., Epstein, E. E., & Brandon, T. H. (2012). Task persistence predicts smoking cessation in smokers with and without schizophrenia. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26, 850-858.

Computerized Version:

Strong, D. R., Lejuez, C. W., Daughters, S., Marinello, M., Kahler, C. W., & Brown, R. A. (2003). The computerized mirror tracing task, version 1. Unpublished manual.

Program available for download: www.addiction.umd.edu/research.htm

Predictive validity, but not with smoking:

Daughters, S. B., Lejuez, C. W., Bornovaolova, M. A., Kahler, C. W., Strong, D. R., & Brown, R. A. (2005). Distress tolerance as a predictor of early treatment dropout in a residential substance abuse treatment facility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 114, 729-734.

Protocol ID:

710701

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable Name Variable IDVariable DescriptiondbGaP Mapping
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Easy_Average_Width
PX710701220000 In easy mode, what is the average width in more
cm of the line of the pattern (based on initial titration step)? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Easy_Maximum_Percentage
PX710701210000 In easy mode, what is the maximum percentage more
(out of 100) of tracing around the entire star? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Easy_Median_Distance
PX710701200000 In easy mode, what is the median distance in more
cm of tracing? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Easy_Offline_Error
PX710701160000 In easy mode, what is the number of times more
the subject traced outside the line? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Easy_Tooslow_Error
PX710701170000 In easy mode, what is the number of times it more
took the subject too long to trace the pattern? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Easy_Total_Distance
PX710701190000 In easy mode, what is the total distance in more
cm of tracing? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Easy_Total_Error
PX710701150000 In easy mode, what is the total number of more
errors (off line + too slow) committed by the subject? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Easy_Total_Time
PX710701180000 In easy mode, what is the length in seconds more
it took the subject to complete the task? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Hard_Average_Width
PX710701380000 In hard mode, what is the average width in more
cm of the line of the pattern (based on initial titration step)? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Hard_Maximum_Percentage
PX710701370000 In hard mode, what is the maximum percentage more
(out of 100) of tracing around the entire star? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Hard_Median_Distance
PX710701360000 In hard mode, what is the median distance in more
cm of tracing? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Hard_Offline_Error
PX710701320000 In hard mode, what is the number of times more
the subject traced outside the line? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Hard_Tooslow_Error
PX710701330000 In hard mode, what is the number of times it more
took the subject too long to trace the pattern? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Hard_Total_Distance
PX710701350000 In hard mode, what is the total distance in more
cm of tracing? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Hard_Total_Error
PX710701310000 In hard mode, what is the total number of more
errors (off line + too slow) committed by the subject? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Hard_Total_Time
PX710701340000 In hard mode, what is the length in seconds more
it took the subject to complete the task? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Medium_Average_Width
PX710701300000 In medium mode, what is the average width in more
cm of the line of the pattern (based on initial titration step)? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Medium_Maximum_Percentage
PX710701290000 In medium mode, what is the maximum more
percentage (out of 100) of tracing around the entire star? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Medium_Median_Distance
PX710701280000 In medium mode, what is the median distance more
in cm of tracing? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Medium_Offline_Error
PX710701240000 In medium mode, what is the number of times more
the subject traced outside the line? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Medium_Tooslow_Error
PX710701250000 In medium mode, what is the number of times more
it took the subject too long to trace the pattern? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Medium_Total_Distance
PX710701270000 In medium mode, what is the total distance more
in cm of tracing? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Medium_Total_Error
PX710701230000 In medium mode, what is the total number of more
errors (off line + too slow) committed by the subject? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Medium_Total_Time
PX710701260000 In medium mode, what is the length in more
seconds it took the subject to complete the task? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Embarrassed
PX710701460000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel more
embarrassed? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Energetic
PX710701450000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel more
energetic? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Excited
PX710701390000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel more
excited? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Frustrated
PX710701420000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel more
frustrated? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Happy
PX710701430000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel happy? N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Interested
PX710701410000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel more
interested? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Mad
PX710701400000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel mad? N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Nervous
PX710701480000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel more
nervous? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Proud
PX710701470000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel proud? N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Upset
PX710701440000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel upset? N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Embarrassed
PX710701120000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel more
embarrassed? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Energetic
PX710701110000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel more
energetic? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Excited
PX710701050000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel more
excited? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Frustrated
PX710701080000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel more
frustrated? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Happy
PX710701090000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel more
happy? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Interested
PX710701070000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel more
interested? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Mad
PX710701060000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel mad? N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Nervous
PX710701140000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel more
nervous? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Proud
PX710701130000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel more
proud? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Upset
PX710701100000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel more
upset? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Quit_Average_Width
PX710701560000 In quit mode, what is the average width in more
cm of the line of the pattern (based on initial titration step)? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Quit_Maximum_Percentage
PX710701550000 In quit mode, what is the maximum percentage more
(out of 100) of tracing around the entire star? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Quit_Median_Distance
PX710701540000 In quit mode, what is the median distance in more
cm of tracing? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Quit_Offline_Error
PX710701500000 In quit mode, what is the number of times more
the subject traced outside the line? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Quit_Tooslow_Error
PX710701510000 In quit mode, what is the number of times it more
took the subject too long to trace the pattern? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Quit_Total_Distance
PX710701530000 In quit mode, what is the total distance in more
cm of tracing? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Quit_Total_Error
PX710701490000 In quit mode, what is the total number of more
errors (off line + too slow) committed by the subject? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Quit_Total_Time
PX710701520000 In quit mode, what is the length in seconds more
it took the subject to complete the task? show less
N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Session_Date
PX710701020000 What date did the session take place? N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Session_ID
PX710701010000 What is the ID number of the session? N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Session_Time
PX710701030000 What time did the session take place? N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Subject_ID
PX710701040000 What is the subject's ID number? N/A
Tobacco Regulatory Research
Measure Name:

Distress Tolerance

Release Date:

February 20, 2015

Definition

The ability to persist in a goal-directed activity when experiencing psychological distress or ability to tolerate psychological distress in general. One measurement approach is time spent on a frustrating behavioral task (i.e., task persistence). Distress tolerance appears to be a relatively stable trait. Across measures, it has been found to be predictive of substance-use outcomes, including smoking cessation. Individuals who are low in distress tolerance may have greater difficulty in maintaining tobacco abstinence in the face of withdrawal and other challenges.

Purpose

The Mirror Tracing Persistence Task (MTPT) has discriminated between smokers and nonsmokers and has predicted smoking cessation outcomes. The original MTPT required the construction or purchase of a physical box with a slanted mirror one side. The participant inserts his or her hand and traces geometric figures while only watching the hand in the mirror. This is extremely difficult and frustrating. Persistence is scored as the mean time on several trials prior to giving up. The Computerized MTPT (MTPT-C) was developed to make the test more accessible, as it did not require the physical equipment. It has potential as a screening instrument to identify individuals at high risk of initiating smoking or of smoking cessation failure. To date, the MTPT-C has predicted treatment dropout among substance abusers, but it has not been tested with smokers per se.

Keywords

Mirror Tracing Persistence Task, MTPT-C, personality, distress, tolerance, distress tolerance