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Protocol - Peer and Family Influence on Smoking

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Description:

The Pierce 5-item National Cancer Institute (NCI) measure consists of 5 questions about peer and family smoking. The indices are scored dichotomously as "no exposure" versus "exposure." No exposure to family smoking: "No" on both family items (items 1 and 3). No exposure to friend smoking: "00" on both friend items (items 4 and 5).

Protocol:

1. Do any of your parents, step-parents, or guardians now smoke cigarettes?

[] 1 YES

[] 2 NO

[] -7 REFUSED

[] -8 DON’T KNOW

2. Do you have any older brothers or sisters?

[] 1 YES

[] 2 NO

[] -7 REFUSED

[] -8 DON’T KNOW

3. Do your older brothers or sisters smoke cigarettes?

[] 1 YES

[] 2 NO

[] -7 REFUSED

[] -8 DON’T KNOW

4. Of your best friends who are male, how many of them smoke?

NUMBER |_|_|

[] NO MALE FRIENDS

[] -7 REFUSED

[] -8 DON’T KNOW

5. Of your best friends who are female, how many of them smoke?

NUMBER |_|_|

[] NO FEMALE FRIENDS

[] -7 REFUSED

[] -8 DON’T KNOW

Protocol Name from Source:

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered or interviewer-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adolescent, Adult

Participants:

Adolescents ages 12-17 and young adults ages 18-22.

Specific Instructions:

Although it has not been used with people over age 22, to date, scientists may consider using this measure with participants up to age 26 as the most recent Surgeon General’s Report on young adult smokers, published in 2012, indicates that smoking initiation continues up to age 26.

Selection Rationale

The Pierce 5-item measure focuses on exposure to family and social network tobacco use and can be applied to teens and young adults. It is recommend by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Measures Guide on Youth Tobacco Use.

The Working Group recommends that these items can be applied to other tobacco use (e‑cigarette, hookah), although the measure has only been validated using cigarettes. Therefore, caution should be taken when applying it to other tobacco products.

It should also be noted that "best friend" networks have changed and the use of hookah, e‑cigarettes, and cigars are often done in bars or lounges with groups. For example, social media, technology, and social environments (like hookah lounges) may have changed how young people define "best friends." Although this has not been studied extensively, young people who consider their social media friends as best friends may indicate that they have large numbers of people in their best friend network, increasing the density of that network. Therefore, when asked the question, "How many of your best friends who are male smoke e-cigarettes?" they may be responding to this question based on social media friends. In addition, they may also be responding based on the friends that they meet with on a regular basis to smoke hookah in lounges.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Tobacco Use Peer and Family Influence Assessment Score 4719175 CDE Browser
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

National Cancer Institute (NCI). (1998). NCI Measures Guide for Youth Tobacco

Research-Peer and Family Smoking. cancercontrol.cancer.gov/brp/tcrb/guide_measures.html

General References

Pierce, J. P., Choi, W. S., Gilpin, E. A., Farkas, A. J., & Berry, C. C. (1998).Tobacco industry promotion of cigarettes and adolescent smoking. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279, 511-515.

Pierce, J. P., Distefan, J. M., Jackson, C., White, M. M., &Gilpin, E. A. (2002). Does tobacco marketing undermine the influence of recommended parenting in discouraging adolescents from smoking? American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23, 73-81.

Protocol ID:

710901

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX710901_Influence_Friends_Female_Smoke PX710901050000 Of your best friends who are female, how many of them smoke? Number? 4 N/A
PX710901_Influence_Friends_Male_Smoke PX710901040000 Of your best friends who are male, how many of them smoke? Number? 4 N/A
PX710901_Influence_Have_Older_Siblings PX710901020000 Do you have any older brothers or sisters? 4 N/A
PX710901_Influence_Older_Siblings_Smoke PX710901030000 Do your older brothers or sisters smoke cigarettes? 4 N/A
PX710901_Influence_Parents_Guardians_Smoke PX710901010000 Do any of your parents, step-parents, or guardians now smoke cigarettes? 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Peer and Family Influence on Smoking

Release Date:

February 20, 2015

Definition

This measure assesses the adolescent’s assessment of the use of cigarettes by parents and siblings and perception (not actual use) of the number of friends who use tobacco in their best-friend social network. This measure focuses on exposure of the adolescents to smoking in their immediate social networks.

Purpose

This specific index was developed to assess the smoking status of immediate family members and best friends.

Keywords

Peer influence, smoking influence, parental influence, smoking exposure