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Protocol - Social Norms about Tobacco - Youth

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Description:

This protocol includes one question from the Wave 1 Youth Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Survey, two questions from the Wave 1 Adult Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Survey, and one question from the "Changes in Peer and Parent Influence During Adolescence: Longitudinal Versus Cross-Sectional Perspectives on Smoking Initiation" publication (Chassin et al., 1986). Question one assesses household descriptive norms (i.e., others’ use of tobacco) by asking whether or not a respondent resides with one or more users of tobacco products. Question two assesses descriptive norms by asking the respondent how many of their friends smoke. Questions three and four assess injunctive norms (i.e., others’ approval of tobacco use) by asking the respondent about the opinions regarding tobacco use among close network members and, more generally, among most people.

Protocol:

Electronic Cigarettes (E-Cigarettes)

Electronic cigarettes, often called e-cigarettes look like regular cigarettes, but are battery-powered and produce vapor instead of smoke. There are many types of e-cigarettes. Some common brands include NJOY®, Blu™, and Smoking Everywhere.

Cigars

Traditional cigars, cigarillos, and filtered cigars go by lots of different names, so please use these descriptions and photos to understand what they are.

Traditional cigars contain tightly rolled tobacco that is wrapped in a tobacco leaf. Some common brands of cigars include Macanudo®, Romeo y Julieta®, and Arturo Fuente®, but there are many others.

Cigarillos and filtered cigars are smaller than traditional cigars. They are usually brown. Some are the same size as cigarettes, and some come with plastic or wood tips. Some common brands are Black & Mild®, Swisher Sweets®, Dutch Masters®, Phillies Blunts®, Prime Time®, and Winchester®.

Pipe Tobacco

There are many different types of regular pipes. They all have a bowl that holds the tobacco and a stem.

Hookah and Shisha

A hookah is a type of water pipe. It is sometimes also called a "narghile" pipe. There are many types of hookahs. People often smoke tobacco in hookahs in groups at cafes or in hookah bars.

Smokeless Tobacco

Smokeless tobacco can be put in your mouth. Frequently you chew, suck or spit while using smokeless tobacco, although there is no need to do so for some types. Snus, for instance, is a type of smokeless tobacco that comes in a small pouch that you put inside your lip.

There are many kinds of smokeless tobacco, such as snus pouches, loose snus, moist snuff, dip, spit, and chewing tobacco. Common brands include Redman®, Levi Garrett®, Beechnut®, Skoal®, Grizzly®, Nordic Ice®, and Copenhagen®.

Dissolvable Tobacco

Dissolvable tobacco products are not smoked-they are made of finely ground flavored tobacco that dissolves in your mouth.

Dissolvable tobacco products come in a variety of shapes, including small round pellets, thin sticks and flat strips. Some common brands are Ariva®, Stonewall™, and Camel Orbs, Sticks, or Strips.

1. Does anyone who lives with you now do any of the following? Choose all that apply.

1 [ ] Smoke cigarettes

2 [ ] Use smokeless tobacco, such as chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, or snus

3 [ ] Smoke cigars, cigarillos, or filtered cigars

4 [ ] Use any other form of tobacco

5 [ ] No one who lives with me now uses any form of tobacco

[ ] -8 DON’T KNOW

[ ] -7 REFUSED

2. How many of your five closest friends smoke cigarettes?

[ ] None

[ ] 1 friend

[ ] 2 friends

[ ] 3 friends

[ ] 4 friends

[ ] 5 friends

3. Thinking about the people who are important to you, how would you describe their opinion on using tobacco?

1 [ ] Very positive

2 [ ] Positive

3 [ ] Neither positive nor negative

4 [ ] Negative

5 [ ] Very negative

[ ] -8 DON’T KNOW

[ ] -7 REFUSED

4. How would you describe most people’s opinion of using tobacco?

1 [ ] Very positive

2 [ ] Positive

3 [ ] Neither positive nor negative

4 [ ] Negative

5 [ ] Very negative

[ ] -8 DON’T KNOW

[ ] -7 REFUSED

Protocol Name from Source:

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None.

Equipment Needs

None.

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered or interviewer-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Child, Adolescent

Participants:

Youth (12-17)

Specific Instructions:

The WG recommends that investigators provide the descriptions and images included in the protocol text section of this data sheet to respondents while the questions are being administered.

In addition, the WG recommends that investigators consider clearly defining "tobacco products" by noting whether that definition includes or excludes certain types of related products based on these criteria: products that are intended for human consumption; made or derived from tobacco; typically contain nicotine, but sometimes do not; and are not Food and Drug Administration-approved tobacco-cessation products.

For Question 1, the Working Group (WG) recommends that investigators include e-cigarettes as a response option.

Although questions 3 and 4 were extracted from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) adult survey, the WG notes that the questions are also appropriate for the youth population.

The WG notes that an additional indicator of descriptive norms could be constructed by determining the prevalence of smoking or other tobacco use within a particular social group. The Powell et al publication (2005) includes an approach that has been used for school-based studies, where school-level prevalence of smoking has been assessed.

School-based prevalence of smoking can be assessed for the individual student’s school, not including the given individual in the calculation. That is, for each student the prevalence of school-based peer smoking is the prevalence of smoking among all other respondents at their school.

Selection Rationale

The Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study is a nationally representative, in-person longitudinal cohort study of non-users and users of tobacco products and those at risk for tobacco use across the United States. Respondents 12 years old and up are asked questions on tobacco use, attitudes, and health, and biospecimens (buccal cell, urine, and blood) are collected from adults. The PATH Study was implemented to provide an evidence base for assessing and monitoring the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s regulatory actions in meeting its mandate under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Regulatory domains include product standards, new and modified risk products, health warnings, and health education campaigns. Recommended measures primarily come from PATH because they have undergone extensive pretesting and will allow comparison with this larger study.

Language

English, Spanish

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Tobacco Use Youth Social Attitude Questionnaire Assessment Text 4925714 CDE Browser
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (2012). Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, Wave 1 Youth Extended Interview 7.5. Item YX0671.

National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), (2012). Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, Wave 1 Adult Extended Interview 7.5. Items AX0071 and AX0007.

Chassin, L., Presson, C. C., Sherman, S. J., Montello, D., & McGrew, J. (1986). Changes in peer and parent influence during adolescence: Longitudinal versus cross-sectional perspectives on smoking initiation. Developmental Psychology, 22(3), 327-334.

General References

National Institutes of Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2013). Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study: Final Youth Baseline (Wave 1) Questionnaire. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health.

National Institutes of Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2013). Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study: Final Adult Baseline (Wave 1) Questionnaire. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health.

Powell LM, Taurasb JA, Ross H. (2005) The importance of peer effects, cigarette prices and tobacco control policies for youth smoking behavior. Journal of Health Economics, 24(5): 950-968.

Protocol ID:

750302

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX750302_SocialNorms_Youth_Smoking_Friends_Acquaintances PX750302020000 How many of your five closest friends smoke cigarettes? 4 N/A
PX750302_SocialNorms_Youth_Smoking_Household PX750302010000 Does anyone who lives with you now do any of the following? Choose all that apply 4 N/A
PX750302_SocialNorms_Youth_Smoking_Opinion_GeneralPublic PX750302040000 How would you describe most people's opinion of using tobacco? 4 N/A
PX750302_SocialNorms_Youth_Smoking_Opinion_LovedOnes PX750302030000 Thinking about the people who are important to you, how would you describe their opinion on using tobacco? 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Social Norms about Tobacco

Release Date:

August 7, 2015

Definition

This measure assesses social norms about tobacco, such as attitudes about tobacco product use among family and peers.

Purpose

The purpose of this measure is to evaluate perceptions and attitudes about tobacco product use by those who are important to them and by the general population, in order to develop a better understanding of the rules and standards by members of a group that guide or constrain social behavior without the force of laws.

Keywords

Social norms, social acceptability, tobacco, smoke, smokeless tobacco, chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, cigars, cigarillos, filtered cigars, International Tobacco Control, ITC, Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health, PATH, family, friends, peers, smoking, attitudes, adult, cigarettes, descriptive norms, injunctive norms, youth, adolescents, cigarettes, opinion, second hand smoke, secondhand smoke, second-hand smoke