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Protocol - Sleep Disorders Screener - Children

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Description:

The Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children is a 26-item, self-administered scale completed by the parent that assesses the child’s sleep behaviors in the past 6 months. The scale includes six subscales: disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep (items 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11); sleep breathing disorders (items 13, 14, 15); disorders of arousal (items 17, 20, 21); sleep-wake transition disorders (items 6, 7, 8, 12, 18, 19); disorders of excessive somnolence (items 22, 23, 24, 25, 26); and sleep hyperhidrosis (score of the items 9, 16). Each item is rated on a 5-point, Likert-type scale (1 = Never; 5 = Always [daily]). Scores from individual items of each subscale are added together to give a subscale score, with higher scores indicating greater symptoms. Scores from the individual subscales can be added together to give a total score.

Specific Instructions:

None

Protocol:

Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children

INSTRUCTIONS: This questionnaire will allow your doctor to have a better understanding of the sleep-wake rhythm of your child and of any problems in his/her sleep behaviour. Try to answer every question; in answering, consider each question as pertaining to the past 6 months of the child’s life. Please answer the questions by circling or striking the number 1 to 6. Thank you very much for your help.

1. How many hours of sleep does your child get on most nights?

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

9-11 hours

8-9 hours

7-8 hours

5-7 hours

Less than 5 hours

2. How long after going to bed does your child usually fall asleep?

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Less than 15’

15-30’

30-45’

45-60’

More than 60’

(1)

Never

(2)

Occasionally (once or twice per month)

(3)

Sometimes (once or twice per week)

(4)

Often (3 or 5 times per week)

(5)

Always (daily)

3. The child goes to bed reluctantly.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

4. The child has difficulty getting to sleep at night.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

5. The child feels anxious or afraid when falling asleep.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

6. The child startles or jerks parts of the body while falling asleep.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

7. The child shows repetitive actions such as rocking or head banging while falling asleep.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

8. The child experiences vivid dream-like scenes while falling asleep.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

9. The child sweats excessively while falling asleep.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

10. The child wakes up more than twice per night.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

11. After waking up in the night, the child has difficulty to fall asleep again.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

12. The child has frequent twitching or jerking of legs while asleep or often changes position during the night or kicks the covers off the bed.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

13. The child has difficulty breathing during the night.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

14. The child gasps for breath or is unable to breathe during sleep.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

15. The child snores.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

16. The child sweats excessively during the night.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

17. You have observed the child sleepwalking.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

18. You have observed the child talking in his/her sleep.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

19. The child grinds teeth during sleep.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

20. The child wakes from sleep screaming or confused so that you cannot seem to get through to him/her, but has no memory of these events the next morning.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

21. The child has nightmares which he/she doesn’t remember the next day.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

22. The child is unusually difficult to wake up in the morning.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

23. The child awakes in the morning feeling tired.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

24. The child feels unable to move when waking up in the morning.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

25. The child experiences daytime somnolence.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

26. The child falls asleep suddenly in inappropriate situations.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Scoring:

  • Disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep (sum the score of the items 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11)
  • Sleep Breathing Disorders (sum the score of the items 13, 14, 15)
  • Disorders of arousal (sum the score of the items 17, 20, 21)
  • Sleep-Wake Transition Disorders (sum the score of the items 6, 7, 8, 12, 18, 19)
  • Disorders of excessive somnolence (sum the score of the items 22, 23, 24, 25, 26)
  • Sleep Hyperhidrosis (sum the score of the items 9, 16)

Total score (sum 6 factors’ scores)

Protocol Name from Source:

Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Proxy-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Child, Adolescent

Participants:

Parent of a child aged 6 to 15.

Selection Rationale

The Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children is a short, reliable, valid, and widely used self-administered questionnaire that is easy to administer and score.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Child Sleep Disorder Assessment Score 6132678 CDE Browser
Human Phenotype Ontology Sleep disturbance HP:0002360 HPO
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

Expert Review Panel 4 (ERP 4) reviewed the measures in the Neurology, Psychiatric, and Psychosocial domains.

Guidance from ERP 4 included the following:

· Added new protocol

· Created new data dictionary

Source

Bruni, O., Salvatore, O., Guidetti, V., Romoli, M., Innocenzi, M., Cortesi, F., & Giannotti, F. (1996). The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC): Construction and validation of an instrument to evaluate sleep disturbances in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Sleep Research, 5, 251-261.

General References

American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.

Roeser, K., Eichholz, R., Schwerdtle, B., Schlarb, A. A., & Kübler, A. (2012). Relationship of sleep quality and health-related quality of life in adolescents according to self- and proxy ratings: A questionnaire survey. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 3, 76.

Taylor, R. W., Heath, A. L. M., Galland, B. C., Cameron, S. L., Lawrence, J. A., Gray, A. R., Tannok, G. W., Lawley, B., Healey, D., Sayers, D., Hanna, M., Meredith-Jones, K., Hatch, B., & Taylor, B. J. (2016). Three-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial to reduce excessive weight gain in the first two years of life: Protocol for the POI follow-up study. BMC Public Health, 16, 771.

Protocol ID:

121002

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable Name Variable IDVariable DescriptiondbGaP Mapping
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Awakes_Tired
PX121002230000 The child awakes in the morning feeling tired. N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Daytime_Somnolence
PX121002250000 The child experiences daytime somnolence. N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Difficulty_Breathing
PX121002130000 The child has difficulty breathing during more
the night. show less
N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Difficulty_Falling_Back_To_Sleep
PX121002110000 After waking up in the night, the child has more
difficulty to fall asleep again. show less
N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Difficulty_Getting_To_Sleep
PX121002040000 The child has difficulty getting to sleep at more
night. show less
N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Difficult_Wake_Up
PX121002220000 The child is unusually difficult to wake up more
in the morning. show less
N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Falls_Asleep_Suddenly_Inappropriate_Situations
PX121002260000 The child falls asleep suddenly in more
inappropriate situations. show less
N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Fall_Asleep
PX121002020000 How long after going to bed does your child more
usually fall asleep? show less
N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Feels_Anxious
PX121002050000 The child feels anxious or afraid when more
falling asleep. show less
N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Gasp_For_Breath
PX121002140000 The child gasps for breath or is unable to more
breathe during sleep. show less
N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Grinds_Teeth
PX121002190000 The child grinds teeth during sleep. N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Hours_Sleep
PX121002010000 How many hours of sleep does your child get more
on most nights? show less
N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Nightmares_No_Memory
PX121002210000 The child has nightmares which he/she more
doesn't remember the next day. show less
N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Reluctant
PX121002030000 The child goes to bed reluctantly. N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Repetitive_Actions
PX121002070000 The child shows repetitive actions such as more
rocking or head banging while falling asleep. show less
N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Screams_Confused_No_Memory
PX121002200000 The child wakes from sleep screaming or more
confused so that you cannot seem to get through to him/her, but has no memory of these events the next morning. show less
N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Sleepwalking
PX121002170000 You have observed the child sleepwalking. N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Snores
PX121002150000 The child snores. N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Startles_Jerks
PX121002060000 The child startles or jerks parts of the more
body while falling asleep. show less
N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Sweats_Excessively_During_The_Night
PX121002160000 The child sweats excessively during the night. N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Sweats_Excessively_While_Falling_Asleep
PX121002090000 The child sweats excessively while falling asleep. N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Talking_In_Sleep
PX121002180000 You have observed the child talking in more
his/her sleep. show less
N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Twitching_Jerking_Legs
PX121002120000 The child has frequent twitching or jerking more
of legs while asleep or often changes position during the night or kicks the covers off the bed. show less
N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Unable_To_Move_Waking
PX121002240000 The child feels unable to move when waking more
up in the morning. show less
N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Vivid_Dream
PX121002080000 The child experiences vivid dream-like more
scenes while falling asleep. show less
N/A
PX121002_Sleep_Disorders_Screener_Wakes_Up
PX121002100000 The child wakes up more than twice per night. N/A
Psychiatric
Measure Name:

Sleep Disorders Screener

Release Date:

November 28, 2017

Definition

A questionnaire to assess sleep disorders, a broad group of disorders that can be caused by endogenous disturbances in the sleep-wake or timing cycles (APA, 2000).

Purpose

This measure is used to screen an individual for the presence of sleep disorders. Sleep disorders are comorbid with a wide variety of health conditions. For example, sleep abnormalities are commonly reported in conjunction with most mental disorders and are also often associated either with a general medical condition or medications used to treat a condition. Additionally, some sleep disorders, such as predisposition toward light, demonstrate a familial pattern indicating a genetic and/or environmental cause (APA, 2000).

Keywords

Sleep, sleep disorders, narcolepsy, sleepiness, routine sleep, insomnia, cataplexy, National Institute of Mental Health, NIMH, National Institute of Mental Health Sleep Patterns and Problems, Psychiatric, gerontology, aging, geriatrics