Protocol - Word Decoding
The Test of Word Reading Efficiency–Second Edition (TOWRE-2) is a nationally normed measure of word reading accuracy and speed. The test contains two subtests: the Sight Word Efficiency (SWE) subtest, and the Phonemic Decoding Efficiency (PDE) subtest. The SWE subtest involves presenting the respondent with a list of real printed words. The respondent must accurately read and pronounce as many words as possible in 45 seconds. This subtest evaluates the respondents’ ability to identify sight words. The PDE subtest involves presenting a list of printed nonwords. The respondent must accurately decode and pronounce as many words as possible in 45 seconds. This subtest evaluates the respondents’ ability to decode (“sound out”) nonwords. The examiner scores each item as it is being pronounced.
The Test of Word Reading Efficiency–Second Edition (TOWRE-2) is a proprietary protocol and administration requires a licensing agreement from Pro-Ed, Incorporated. For this assessment to be considered valid, the investigator should make sure that the respondent speaks English as a first language.
Summary of the Test of Word Reading Efficiency–Second Edition (TOWRE-2)
The Test of Word Reading Efficiency–Second Edition (TOWRE-2) contains two subtests: the Sight Word Efficiency (SWE) subtest, and the Phonemic Decoding Efficiency (PDE) subtest. The SWE subtest assesses the number of printed sight words that can be accurately identified and pronounced in 45 seconds. The PDE subtest measures the number of printed nonwords that can be accurately decoded (“sounded out”) in 45 seconds.
Test of Word Reading Efficiency–Second Edition (TOWRE-2). Copyright © 2012 Pro-Ed, Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Personnel and Training Required
The Test of Word Reading Efficiency–Second Edition (TOWRE-2) can be administered by trained research assistants. Examiners should have formal training in the ethical administration, scoring, and interpretation of clinical assessments. Additionally, investigators are encouraged to have quality control procedures in place to maintain consistency across tests and among examiners. Examiners should familiarize themselves with the expected pronunciations, especially of the nonwords. Due to the speed of the word reading task, examiners may wish to record the participants’ productions and score their performance offline.
The interviewer will need the complete kit for the Test of Word Reading Efficiency–Second Edition (TOWRE-2), which includes: Examiner's Manual, Examiner Record Booklets (Forms A and B), Response to Intervention Booklets, and Word Cards for Forms A,B,C, and D. These four different versions of the test are available to facilitate retesting to monitor progress without repeating the same test version.
|Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection||No|
|Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual||No|
Mode of Administration
Child, Adolescent, Adult
Children, adolescents, and adults, ages 6 years and 0 months through 24 years and 11 months
The Test of Word Reading Efficiency–Second Edition (TOWRE-2) was selected because it is a widely used, validated protocol that can be administered very quickly. Additionally, normative data are available to assist scoring.
Process and Review
The Expert Review Panel #7 (ERP 7) reviewed the measures in the Speech and Hearing domain.
Guidance from the ERP 7 includes the following:
- Updated protocol
Back-compatible: no changes to Data Dictionary
Previous version in Toolkit archive (link)
Protocol Name from Source
The Test of Word Reading Efficiency?Second Edition (TOWRE-2)
Torgesen, J., Wagner, R., & Rashotte, C. (2012). Test of Word Reading Efficiency–2 (TOWRE-2). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed, Inc.
The Test of Word Reading Efficiency–Second Edition (TOWRE-2) is a proprietary protocol and can be obtained through:
8700 Shoal Creek Boulevard
Austin, TX 78757-6897
|Variable Name||Variable ID||Variable Description||dbGaP Mapping|
|PX201402000000||Protocol 201402 - proprietary. Check DCW for more||N/A|
June 4, 2019
This measure is a test to assess the respondent's ability to read real words and nonwords rapidly and accurately.
This measure tests a respondent's word reading accuracy and speed to provide an efficient means of monitoring word and nonword reading skills that are critical in the development of overall reading ability. Difficulty with sight word identification and nonword decoding is a key component of dyslexia.
word decoding, word decoding, word identification, reading, Test of Word Reading Efficiency–Second Edition, TOWRE-2, dyslexia, decoding, speed, sight word efficiency, phonemic decoding efficiency, proprietary, speech and hearing
|Protocol ID||Protocol Name|
Rice, M.L. & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2016) Language Phenotypes. In V. Jagaroo and S.L. Santangelo (eds.) Neurophenotypes, Innovations in Cognitive Neuroscience. Springer. 2016 January; doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3846-5_12