Protocol - Family Conflict - Parent-Child
The Conflict Tactics Scales: Parent-Child Version (CTS PC) is a 35-item questionnaire given to adult parents of children or given to children themselves that evaluates how parents deal with conflict with their child, including nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical assault in the parent-child relationship. The respondent reviews the list of items and chooses a response from an eight-point Likert scale that best describes the strategies used by the parent to manage conflict with the child. It can be self-administered or administered by an interview as part of a personal interview.
The Conflict Tactics Scales: Parent-Child Version (CTS PC) is a proprietary instrument, and administration requires a licensing agreement from Western Psychological Services. The Social Environments Working Group notes that this measure can be used for both biological parent-child relationships and relationships with stepchildren or adopted children.
Summary of the Conflict Tactics Scales: Parent-Child (CTS PC)
The Conflict Tactics Scales: Parent-Child Version (CTS PC) includes 35 items focused on the respondent’s behavior with his or her child as well as the parent’s own experiences as a child. The scale provides scores for:
- - Nonviolent discipline
- - Physical assault
- - Neglect
- - Psychological aggression
- - Weekly discipline
- - Sexual abuse
Items from the Conflict Tactics Scales: Parent-Child Version (CTS PC) include explaining to the child why something he or she did was wrong, sending the child to time out, threatening the child with a knife or gun, and calling the child hurtful names. Response options capture the number of times (such as never, once, twice, etc.) specific disciplinary strategies were used during the past year.
For each item, the respondent indicates the number of times the event has occurred in the past year. The responses are summed for all questions with higher scores indicating more psychological and physical abuse.
Conflict Tactics Scales: Parent Child Copyright © 2003 by Western Psychological Services. All rights reserved.
Personnel and Training Required
No specific training is needed if data are collected through a self-administered questionnaire. If interviewers administer the questionnaire, the interviewer must be trained to conduct personal interviews with individuals from the general population and found competent to administer these particular questions (i.e., tested by an expert) at the end of the training. The interviewer should be trained to prompt respondents further if a “don’t know” response is provided.
These questions can be administered in a computerized or noncomputerized format (i.e., paper-and pencil instrument). Computer software is necessary to develop computer-assisted instruments. The interviewer will require a laptop computer or handheld computer to administer or to allow the respondent to self-administer a computer-assisted questionnaire.
|Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection||No|
|Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual||No|
Mode of Administration
Self-administered or interviewer-administered questionnaire
Adults, aged 18 years and older
The Conflict Tactics Scales: Parent-Child Version (CTS PC) was selected because it is a widely used, validated protocol with documented validity and reliability. Past research also shows that the scale’s scores are associated with relevant outcomes.
|Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC)||Fam conflict parent child proto||63018-6||LOINC|
Process and Review
The Expert Review Panel #2 (ERP 2) reviewed the measures in the Demographics, Environmental Exposures, and Social Environments domains.
Guidance from ERP 2 includes:
• Revised descriptions of the measure
Back-compatible: no changes to Data Dictionary
Previous version in Toolkit archive (link)
Protocol Name from Source
Conflict Tactics Scales: Parent-Child Version (CTS PC), 2003
Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Boney-McCoy, S., Sugarman, D. B., Finkelhor, D., Moore, D. W., & Runyan, D. K. (2003). Conflict Tactics Scales. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
The Conflict Tactics Scales: Parent-Child (CTS PC) is a proprietary instrument and can be obtained through:
Western Psychological Services
12031 Wilshire Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90025-1251
Straus, M. (1979). Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: The Conflict Tactics (CT) Scales. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 41, 75-88.
Straus, M. A. (2007). Conflict Tactics Scales. In N. A. Jackson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of domestic violence (pp. 190-197). New York: Routledge.
Straus, M., & Hamby, S.L. (1997). Measuring physical and psychological maltreatment of children with the Conflict Tactics Scales. In G. Kaufman Kantor & J. L. Jasinsky (Eds.), Out of the darkness: Contemporary research perspectives on family violence (pp. 119-135). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
|Variable Name||Variable ID||Variable Description||dbGaP Mapping|
|PX210402000000||Protocol 210402 - proprietary. Check DCW for more||N/A|
October 8, 2010
This measure is a questionnaire to assess the level of conflict in families and in intimate relationships.
This measure is used to evaluate conflict and strategies to deal with conflict within parent-child and intimate relationships.
family conflict - parent-child, Social environments, family, violence, Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, CTS 2, conflict, relationships, nonviolent discipline, assault, neglect, aggression, discipline, abuse, negotiation, injury, sexual coercion, proprietary
|Protocol ID||Protocol Name|
|210401||Family Conflict - Intimate-Relationship|
|210402||Family Conflict - Parent-Child|
Petrican, R., et al. (2021) Pubertal timing and functional neurodevelopmental alterations independently mediate the effect of family conflict on adolescent psychopathology. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. 2021 December; 52: 101032. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2021.101032
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Zucker, R. A, et al. (2018) Assessment of culture and environment in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study: Rationale, description of measures, and early data. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2018 August; 32: 107-120. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.004
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Webel, A. R., et al. (2016) Social resources, health promotion behavior, and quality of life in adults living with HIV. Appl Nurs Res. 2016 May; 30: 204-9. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2015.08.001