Protocol - Disease Progression and Regression - Adult
The Newcastle Paediatric Mitochondrial Disease Scale (NPMDS) and the Newcastle Mitochondrial Disease Adult Scale (NMDAS) can be used to evaluate the progression of mitochondrial disease. There are three versions of the NPMDS, each for a specific age range (0-24 months, 2-11 years, and 12-18 years). The NMDAS is for adult patients over 16 years. The investigators from Newcastle University recommend that if the child experiences early onset of a mitochondrial disease in childhood, the NPMDS 12-18 year scale should be used. If an adolescent experiences onset of a mitochondrial disease, the investigators recommend switching to the NMDAS scale at 16 years.
The aim of the scales is to allow for standardization of patient assessment and to improve accurate data collection. The scales are composed of multiple domains: Current Function, System Specific Involvement, Current Clinical Assessment, and Quality of Life. Almost all questions provide a score which ranges from 0-3, with the following representations: 0 is normal, 1 is mild, 2 is moderate, and 3 is severe. Examples of the severity for each question are provided. Depending on the domain, the questions are either self- or interviewer-administrated, based on a provider’s clinical assessment or medical records. There is a manual for each scale, which details the administration, process, and scoring instructions.
To maximize consistency, the authors of the scales state it is essential that clinicians adhere to the scale instructions. They also advise that the scales be administrated by clinicians with experience in the care of patients with mitochondrial disease and that the scale is given every 6 months for children under 2 years of age and at 6- to 12-month intervals for older children and adults.
The Newcastle Mitochondrial Disease Adult Scale (NMDAS)
Date of birth: ________________
Date of assessment: ________________
Forced Vital Capacity (FVC):
FVC - 1st attempt ____________
FVC - 2nd attempt ____________
FVC - 3rd attempt ____________
Section I- Current Function
Rate function over the preceding 4 week period, according to patient and/or caregiver interview only. The clinician’s subjective judgement of functional ability should not be taken into account.
1. Vision with usual glasses or contact lenses
- No functional impairment but aware of worsened acuities.
- Mild - difficulty with small print or text on television.
- Moderate - difficulty outside the home (eg bus numbers, road signs or shopping).
- Severe - difficulty recognising faces.
- Unable to navigate without help (eg carer, dog, cane).
2. Hearing with or without hearing aid
- No communication problems but aware of tinnitus or deterioration from prior ‘normal’ hearing.
- Mild deafness (eg missing words in presence of background noise). Fully corrected with hearing aid.
- Moderate deafness (eg regularly requiring repetition). Not fully corrected with hearing aid.
- Severe deafness - poor hearing even with aid (see 3 above).
- End stage - virtually no hearing despite aid. Relies heavily on non-verbal communication (eg lip reading) or has cochlear implant.
- Communication unaffected but patient or others aware of changes in speech patterns or quality.
- Mild difficulties - usually understood and rarely asked to repeat things.
- Moderate difficulties - poorly understood by strangers and frequently asked to repeat things.
- Severe difficulties - poorly understood by family or friends.
- Not understood by family or friends. Requires communication aid.
- Mild - sensation of solids ‘sticking’ (occasional).
- Sensation of solids ‘sticking’ (most meals) or need to modify diet (eg avoidance of steak/salad).
- Difficulty swallowing solids - affecting meal size or duration. Coughing, choking or nasal regurgitation infrequent (1 to 4 times per month) but more than peers.
- Requires adapted diet - regular coughing, choking, or nasal regurgitation (more than once per week).
- Requiring enteral feeding (eg PEG).
- Writing speed unaffected but aware of increasing untidiness.
- Mild - Has to write slower to maintain tidiness/legibility.
- Moderate - Handwriting takes at least twice as long or resorts to printing (must previously have used joined writing).
- Severe - Handwriting mostly illegible. Printing very slow and untidy (eg ‘THE BLACK CAT’ takes in excess of 30 seconds).
- Unable to write. No legible words.
6. Cutting food and handling utensils (irrespective of contributory factors - eg weakness, coordination, cognitive function etc. This is also true for questions 7-10)
- Slightly slow and/or clumsy but minimal effect on meal duration.
- Slow and/or clumsy with extended meal duration, but no help required.
- Difficulty cutting up food and inaccuracy of transfer pronounced. Can manage alone but avoids problem foods (eg peas) or carer typically offers minor assistance (eg cutting up steak).
- Unable to cut up food. Can pass food to mouth with great effort or inaccuracy. Resultant intake minimal. Requires major assistance.
- Needs to be fed.
- Occasional difficulties (eg shoe laces, buttons etc) but no real impact on time or effort taken to dress.
- Mild - Dressing takes longer and requires more effort than expected at the patient’s age. No help required.
- Moderate - Can dress unaided but takes at least twice as long and is a major effort. Carer typically helps with difficult tasks such as shoe laces or buttons.
- Severe - Unable to dress without help but some tasks completed unaided.
- Needs to be dressed.
- Occasional difficulties only but no real impact on time or effort required.
- Mild - hygienic care takes longer but quality unaffected.
- Moderate - bathes and showers alone with difficulty or needs bath chair / modifications. Dextrous tasks (eg brushing teeth, combing hair) performed poorly.
- Severe - unable to bathe or shower without help. Major difficulty using toilet alone. Dextrous tasks require help.
- Dependent upon carers to wash, bathe, and toilet.
9. Exercise Tolerance
- Unlimited on flat - symptomatic on inclines or stairs.
- Able to walk < 1000m on the flat. Restricted on inclines or stairs - rest needed after 1 flight (12 steps).
- Able to walk < 500m on the flat. Rest needed after 8 steps on stairs.
- Able to walk < 100m on the flat. Rest needed after 4 steps on stairs.
- Able to walk < 25m on the flat. Unable to do stairs alone.
10. Gait stability
- Normal gait - occasional difficulties on turns, uneven ground, or if required to balance on narrow base.
- Gait reasonably steady. Aware of impaired balance. Occasionally off balance when walking.
- Unsteady gait. Always off balance when walking. Occasional falls. Gait steady with support of stick or person.
- Gait grossly unsteady without support. High likelihood of falls. Can only walk short distances (< 10m) without support.
- Unable to walk without support. Falls on standing.
Section II - System Specific Involvement
Rate function according to patient and/or caregiver interview and consultation with the medical notes. Each inquiry should take into account the situation for the preceding 12 month period only, unless otherwise stated in the question.
- Mild & transient (eg reactive depression) - lasting less than 3 months.
- Mild & persistent (lasting more than 3 months) or recurrent. Patient has consulted GP.
- Moderate & warranting specialist treatment (e.g. from a psychiatrist) - eg. bipolar disorder or depression with vegetative symptoms (insomnia, anorexia, abulia etc).
- Severe (eg self harm - psychosis etc).
- Institutionalised or suicide attempt.
2. Migraine Headaches During the last 3 months, how many days have headaches prevented the patient from functioning normally at school, work, or in the home?
- No past history.
- Asymptomatic but past history of migraines.
- One day per month.
- Two days per month.
- Three days per month.
- Four days per month or more.
- No past history.
- Asymptomatic but past history of epilepsy.
- Myoclonic or simple partial seizures only.
- Multiple absence, complex partial, or myoclonic seizures affecting function or single generalized seizure.
- Multiple generalised seizures.
- Status epilepticus.
4. Stroke-like episodes (exclude focal deficits felt to be of vascular aetiology)
- Transient focal sensory symptoms only (less than 24 hours).
- Transient focal motor symptoms only (less than 24 hours).
- Single stroke-like episode affecting one hemisphere (more than 24 hours).
- Single stroke-like episode affecting both hemispheres (more than 24 hours).
- Multiple stroke-like episodes (more than 24 hours each).
5. Encephalopathic Episodes
- No past history.
- Asymptomatic but past history of encephalopathy.
- Mild - single episode of personality or behavioural change but retaining orientation in time/place/person.
- Moderate - single episode of confusion or disorientation in time, place or person.
- Severe - multiple moderate episodes (as above) or emergency hospital admission due to encephalopathy without associated seizures or stroke-like episodes.
- Very severe - in association with seizures, strokes or gross lactic acidaemia.
6. Gastro-intestinal symptoms
- Mild constipation only or past history of bowel resection for dysmotility.
- Occasional symptoms of ‘irritable bowel’ (pain, bloating or diarrhoea) with long spells of normality.
- Frequent symptoms (as above) most weeks or severe constipation with bowels open less than once/week or need for daily medications.
- Dysmotility requiring admission or persistent and/or recurrent anorexia/vomiting/weight loss.
- Surgical procedures or resections for gastrointestinal dysmotility.
7. Diabetes mellitus
- Past history of gestational diabetes or transient glucose intolerance related to intercurrent illness.
- Impaired glucose tolerance (in absence of intercurrent illness).
- NIDDM (diet).
- NIDDM (tablets).
- DM requiring insulin (irrespective of treatment at onset).
8. Respiratory muscle weakness
- FVC normal (≥ 85% predicted).
- FVC < 85% predicted.
- FVC < 75% predicted.
- FVC < 65% predicted.
- FVC < 55% predicted.
- FVC < 45% predicted or ventilator support for over 6 hours per 24 hr period (not for OSA alone).
9. Cardiovascular system
- Asymptomatic ECG change.
- Asymptomatic LVH on echo or non-sustained brady/tachyarrhythmia on ECG.
- Sustained or symptomatic arrhythmia, LVH or cardiomyopathy. Dilated chambers or reduced function on echo. Mobitz II AV block or greater.
- Requires pacemaker, defibrillator, arrhythmia ablation, or LVEF < 35% on echocardiogram.
- Symptoms of left ventricular failure with clinical and/or x-ray evidence of pulmonary oedema or LVEF < 30% on echocardiogram.
Section III - Current Clinical Assessment
Rate current status according to examination performed at the time of assessment
1. Visual acuity with usual glasses, contact lenses or pinhole.
- CSD ≤ 12 (ie normal vision - 6/6, 6/6 or better).
- CSD ≤ 18 (eg 6/9, 6/9).
- CSD ≤ 36 (eg 6/12, 6/24).
- CSD ≤ 60 (eg 6/24, 6/36).
- CSD ≤ 96 (eg 6/60, 6/36).
- CSD ≥ 120 (eg 6/60, 6/60 or worse).
- Mild ptosis - not obscuring either pupil.
- Unilateral ptosis obscuring < 1/3 of pupil.
- Bilateral ptosis obscuring < 1/3 or unilateral ptosis obscuring > 1/3 of pupil or prior unilateral surgery.
- Bilateral ptosis obscuring > 1/3 of pupils or prior bilateral surgery.
- Bilateral ptosis obscuring >2/3 of pupils or >1/3 of pupils despite prior bilateral surgery.
3. Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia
- Some restriction of eye movement (any direction). Abduction complete.
- Abduction of worst eye incomplete.
- Abduction of worst eye below 60% of normal.
- Abduction of worst eye below 30% of normal.
- Abduction of worst eye minimal (flicker).
- Minimal - noted on examination only.
- Mild - clear impairment but easily understood.
- Moderate - some words poorly understood and infrequent repetition needed.
- Severe - many words poorly understood and frequent repetition needed.
- Not understood. Requires communication aid.
- Minimal reduction in hip flexion and/or shoulder abduction only (eg MRC 4+/5).
- Mild but clear proximal weakness in hip flexion and shoulder abduction (MRC 4/5). Minimal weakness in elbow flexion and knee extension (MRC 4+/5 - both examined with joint at 90 degrees).
- Moderate proximal weakness including elbow flexion & knee extension (MRC 4/5 or 4 -/5) or difficulty rising from a 90 degree squat.
- Waddling gait. Unable to rise from a 90 degree squat (=a chair) unaided.
- Wheelchair dependent primarily due to proximal weakness.
6. Cerebellar ataxia
- Normal gait but hesitant heel-toe.
- Gait reasonably steady. Unable to maintain heel-toe walking or mild UL dysmetria.
- Ataxic gait (but walks unaided) or UL intention tremor & past-pointing. Unable to walk heel-toe - falls immediately.
- Severe - gait grossly unsteady without support or UL ataxia sufficient to affect feeding.
- Wheelchair dependent primarily due to ataxia or UL ataxia prevents feeding.
- Subtle sensory symptoms or areflexia.
- Sensory impairment only (eg glove & stocking sensory loss).
- Motor impairment (distal weakness) or sensory ataxia.
- Sensory ataxia or motor effects severely limit ambulation.
- Wheelchair bound primarily due to sensory ataxia or neurogenic weakness.
8. Pyramidal Involvement
- Focal or generalised increase in tone or reflexes only.
- Mild focal weakness, sensory loss or fine motor impairment (eg cortical hand).
- Moderate hemiplegia allowing unaided ambulation or dense UL monoplegia.
- Severe hemiplegia allowing ambulation with aids or moderate tetraplegia (ambulant).
- Wheelchair dependant primarily due to hemiplegia or tetraplegia.
- Mild and unilateral. Not disabling (H&Y stage 1).
- Mild and bilateral. Minimal disability. Gait affected (H&Y stage 2).
- Moderate. Significant slowing of body movements (H&Y stage 3)
- Severe. Rigidity and bradykinesia. Unable to live alone. Can walk to limited extent (H&Y stage 4).
- Cannot walk or stand unaided. Requires constant nursing care (H&Y stage 5).
Patients undergo testing using WTAR, Symbol Search and Speed of Comprehension Test.
- Combined centiles 100 or more.
- Combined centiles 60 - 99
- Combined centiles 30 - 59
- Combined centiles 15 - 29
- Combined centiles 5 - 14
- Combined centiles 4 or below.
Personnel and Training Required
Newcastle Paediatric Mitochondrial Disease Scale (NPMDS) and the Newcastle Mitochondrial Disease Adult Scale (NMDS) should be administered by clinicians, preferably with experience in caring for patients with mitochondrial disease.
|Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection||No|
|Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual||Yes|
Mode of Administration
Self- or proxy-administered questionnaire
Adults age 16 or older
The Rare Genetic Conditions Working Group (WG) selected the Newcastle Paediatric Mitochondrial Disease Scale (NPMDS) and the Newcastle Mitochondrial Disease Adult Scale (NMDAS) because mitochondrial disorders have a wide array of symptoms making this measure potentially extensible to other progressive disorders. In addition, rare genetic disorders can be associated with secondary mitochondrial dysfunction and overlapping symptoms. Although these scales were developed for mitochondrial diseases, the WG acknowledges that data from these scales can be beneficial for other rare genetic conditions, such as inborn errors of metabolism, storage disorders, and nonmitochondrial myopathies.
|caDSR Common Data Elements (CDE)||Adult Disease Progression and Regression Assessment Scale||4798112||CDE Browser|
|Human Phenotype Ontology||Pace of progression||HP:0003679||HPO|
Process and Review
Protocol Name from Source
Newcastle University. Newcastle Mitochondrial Disease Adult Scale (NMDAS).
12-18 years. Available at bsu.ncl.ac.uk/pdfs/nmdas_scale.pdf.
Enns, G. M., Moore, T., Le, A., Atkuri, K., Shah, M. K., Cusmano-Ozog, K., Niemi, A. K., & Cowan, T. M. (2014). Degree of glutathione deficiency and redox imbalance depend on subtype of mitochondrial disease and clinical status. PLoS One, 9(6), e100001. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100001
Schaefer, A. M., Phoenix, C., Elson, J. L., McFarland, R., Chinnery, P. F., & Turnbull, D. M. (2006). Mitochondrial disease in adults: A scale to monitor progression and treatment. Neurology, 66(12), 1932-1934.
|Variable Name||Variable ID||Variable Description||dbGaP Mapping|
|PX220704320000||Rate current status according to examination more||N/A|
|PX220704360000||Rate current status according to examination more||N/A|
|PX220704290000||Rate current status according to examination more||N/A|
|PX220704300000||Rate current status according to examination more||N/A|
|PX220704350000||Rate current status according to examination more||N/A|
|PX220704310000||Rate current status according to examination more||N/A|
|PX220704330000||Rate current status according to examination more||N/A|
|PX220704280000||Rate current status according to examination more||N/A|
|PX220704340000||Rate current status according to examination more||N/A|
|PX220704270000||Rate current status according to examination more||N/A|
|PX220704120000||Rate function over the preceding 4 week more||N/A|
|PX220704130000||Rate function over the preceding 4 week more||N/A|
|PX220704140000||Rate function over the preceding 4 week more||N/A|
|PX220704160000||Rate function over the preceding 4 week more||N/A|
|PX220704170000||Rate function over the preceding 4 week more||N/A|
|PX220704090000||Rate function over the preceding 4 week more||N/A|
|PX220704150000||Rate function over the preceding 4 week more||N/A|
|PX220704100000||Rate function over the preceding 4 week more||N/A|
|PX220704110000||Rate function over the preceding 4 week more||N/A|
|PX220704080000||Rate function over the preceding 4 week more||N/A|
|PX220704030000||Today's Date||Variable Mapping|
|PX220704020000||Date of Birth||N/A|
|PX220704050000||Forced Vital Capicity - 1st attempt||N/A|
|PX220704060000||Forced Vital Capicity - 2nd attempt||N/A|
|PX220704070000||Forced Vital Capicity - 3rd attempt||N/A|
|PX220704260000||System Specific Inviolvment - Each inquiry more||N/A|
|PX220704240000||System Specific Inviolvment - Each inquiry more||N/A|
|PX220704220000||System Specific Inviolvment - Each inquiry more||N/A|
|PX220704230000||System Specific Inviolvment - Each inquiry more||N/A|
|PX220704190000||System Specific Inviolvment - Each inquiry more||N/A|
|PX220704180000||System Specific Inviolvment - Each inquiry more||N/A|
|PX220704250000||System Specific Inviolvment - Each inquiry more||N/A|
|PX220704200000||System Specific Inviolvment - Each inquiry more||N/A|
|PX220704210000||System Specific Inviolvment - Each inquiry more||N/A|
Disease Progression and Regression
April 30, 2015
This measure determines the impact of disease on an individual over time.
This measure is used to assess the presence and degree of symptoms over time. Rare genetic diseases, such as mitochondrial disorders and mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS), can be associated with symptoms that become more severe over time and may result in a regression of some physical abilities. This measure can be used to quantify such changes to determine the natural course of disease(s) as well as contribute to longitudinal or therapeutic intervention studies.
Newcastle Paediatric Mitochondrial Disease Scale, NPMDS, Newcastle Mitochondrial Disease Adult Scale, NMDAS, mitochondria, developmental delay, intellectual delay, disease, disease scale, progression, regression