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Protocol - Dietary Restraint

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Description:

The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-18) is an 18-item, self-administered questionnaire with Likert-style questions.

Protocol:

1. When I smell a sizzling steak or juicy piece of meat, I find it very difficult to keep from eating, even if I have just finished a meal.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

2. I deliberately take small helpings as a means of controlling my weight.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

3. When I feel anxious, I find myself eating.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

4. Sometimes when I start eating, I just can’t seem to stop.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

5. Being with someone who is eating often makes me hungry enough to eat also.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

6. When I feel blue, I often overeat.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

7. When I see a real delicacy, I often get so hungry that I have to eat right away.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

8. I get so hungry that my stomach often seems like a bottomless pit.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

9. I am always hungry so it is hard for me to stop eating before I finish the food on my plate.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

10. When I feel lonely, I console myself by eating.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

11. I consciously hold back at meals in order not to weight gain.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

12. I do not eat some foods because they make me fat.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

13. I am always hungry enough to eat at any time.

[ ] definitely true (4)

[ ] mostly true (3)

[ ] mostly false (2)

[ ] definitely false (1)

14. How often do you feel hungry?

[ ] Only at meal times (1)

[ ] sometimes between meals (2)

[ ] often between meals (3)

[ ] almost always (4)

15. How frequently do you avoid "stocking up" on tempting foods?

[ ] Almost never (1)

[ ] seldom (2)

[ ] usually (3)

[ ] almost always (4)

16. How likely are you to consciously eat less than you want?

[ ] Unlikely (1)

[ ] slightly likely (2)

[ ] moderately likely (3)

[ ] very likely (4)

17. Do you go on eating binges though you are not hungry?

[ ] Never (1)

[ ] rarely (2)

[ ] sometimes (3)

[ ] at least once a week (4)

18. On a scale of 1 to 8, where 1 means no restraint in eating (eating whatever you want, whenever you want it) and 8 means total restraint (constantly limiting food intake and never "giving in"), what number would you give yourself?

____________

Scoring:

The 1-2 scores were coded 1; 3-4 scores were coded 2; 5-6 scores were coded 3; 7-8 scores were coded 4. The cognitive restraint scale was composed of items 2, 11, 12, 15, 16, and 18. The uncontrolled eating scale was composed of items 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, and 17. The emotional eating scale was composed of items 3, 6, and 10.

Protocol Name from Source:

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adolescent, Adult

Participants:

Adolescents 12 and older and adults

Specific Instructions:

The Working Group recommends making the change to Question 1 that is described below, since steak and meat are not nearly as popular now as when the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was developed.

Angle et al. (2009) "modified item 1, "When I smell a sizzling steak or a juicy piece of meat, I find it very difficult to keep from eating, even if I have just finished a meal," into "When I smell a delicious food, I find it very difficult to keep from eating, even if I have just finished a meal." It was considered that this slight change would improve the ability of the statement to measure-in this population-what it was originally meant to measure: difficulty controlling eating when tempted by external stimuli, even when already full."

Selection Rationale

In observational studies, dieting is a robust predictor of weight change. Since diets may be focused on changing diet composition rather than caloric restriction, a measure of dietary intake is important. The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) dietary restraint measure is validated, widely used, and free of charge.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Obesity Three Factor Eating Questionnaire Assessment Score 4994151 CDE Browser
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 - Questions 1-18

General References

Lauzon, B., Romon, M., Deschamps, V., Lafay, L., Borys, JM., Karlsson, J., Ducimetière, P., Charles, M., Fleubaix Laventie Ville Sante Study Group. (2004). The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 Is Able to Distinguish among Different Eating Patterns in a General Population. The Journal of Nutrition, 134(9), 2372-2380.

Stunkard, A. J., & Messick, S. (1985). The three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 29(1), 71-83.

Anglé, S., Engblom, J., Eriksson, T., Kautiainen, S., Saha, M. T., Lindfors, P., Lehtinen, M., & Rimpelä, A. (2009). Three factor eating questionnaire-R18 as a measure of cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating in a sample of young Finnish females. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 17(6), 41.

Protocol ID:

230401

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_AlwaysHungry_Enough_ToEat PX230401130000 I am always hungry enough to eat at any time. 4 N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_AlwaysHungry_Hard_StopEating_BeforeFinishFood PX230401090000 I am always hungry so it is hard for me to stop eating before I finish the food on my plate. 4 N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_BeingWithEater_MakesMeHungry PX230401050000 Being with someone who is eating often makes me hungry enough to eat also. 4 N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_Deliberately_SmallHelpings_ControlWeight PX230401020000 I deliberately take small helpings as a means of controlling my weight. 4 N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_DoNotEat_SomeFoods_MakeMeFat PX230401120000 I do not eat some foods because they make me fat. 4 N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_EatingBinges_NotHungry PX230401170000 Do you go on eating binges though you are not hungry? 4 N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_FeelAnxious_FindMyselfEating PX230401030000 When I feel anxious, I find myself eating. 4 N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_FeelBlue_Often_Overeat PX230401060000 When I feel blue, I often overeat. 4 N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_FeelLonely_ConsoleMyself_ByEating PX230401100000 When I feel lonely, I console myself by eating. 4 N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_HoldBack_AtMeals_WeightGain PX230401110000 I consciously hold back at meals in order not to weight gain. 4 N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_HowFrequently_Avoid_Stocking_TemptingFoods PX230401150000 How frequently do you avoid "stocking up" on tempting foods? 4 N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_HowLikely_Consicous_EatLess_ThanWant PX230401160000 How likely are you to consciously eat less than you want? 4 N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_HowOften_Hungry PX230401140000 How often do you feel hungry? 4 N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_Often_SoHungry_Stomach_BottomlessPit PX230401080000 I get so hungry that my stomach often seems like a bottomless pit. 4 N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_Rating PX230401180000 On a scale of 1 to 8, where 1 means no restraint in eating (eating whatever you want, whenever you want it) and 8 means total restraint (constantly limiting food intake and never "giving in"), what number would you give yourself? 4 N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_SeeDelicacy_SoHungry_MustEat PX230401070000 When I see a real delicacy, I often get so hungry that I have to eat right away. 4 N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_SmellSteak_Difficulty_NotEating PX230401010000 When I smell a sizzling steak or juicy piece of meat, I find it very difficult to keep from eating, even if I have just finished a meal. 4 N/A
PX230401_DietaryRestraint_StartEating_CantStop PX230401040000 Sometimes when I start eating, I just can't seem to stop 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Dietary Restraint

Release Date:

September 9, 2015

Definition

A self-administered questionnaire used to assess the cognitive and behavioral components of eating.

Purpose

Dietary restraint is used to describe both the ability to successfully limit intake and extreme reductions in intake often followed by overeating episodes

Keywords

Eating disorders, disordered eating, dietary restraint, disinhibition, cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating, eating behavior, hunger, Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, TFEQ