Protocol - Physical Properties of Tobacco Products - Cigarettes and Filtered Cigars
The 1999 Massachusetts Benchmark Study protocol includes physical methods and tests to evaluate the length, circumference, filter ventilation, tobacco weight, filter composition, and filter overwrap length of cigarettes and filtered cigars. This information is collected directly through visual inspections.
Cigarette Length (Brown & Williamson)
Ten cigarettes, laid mouth to butt, are placed in a Cerulean cd2 express or Borgwaldt S10. The total length of the ten cigarettes is determined. The filters from each cigarette are removed, and the total length of ten filters laid end to end is determined. The average length is calculated by dividing the total length by the number measured (10). Results are measured in millimeters.
Cigarette Circumference (Brown & Williamson)
A Cerulean cd2 express or Borgwaldt S10 is used for the circumference determination. Samples consist of 20 cigarettes, with each cigarette being tested individually. The AHL transports individual cigarettes to the testing station. The second module determines cigarette circumference by the linear displacement of a tape gauge that encircles the cigarette. Circumference results are measured to the one hundredth of a millimeter.
Tobacco Weight (Philip Morris)
Tobacco weight is determined using an indirect method. A group of 15 cigarettes is weighed and the composite weight recorded. The paper and filters of the corresponding 15 cigarettes are then removed and weighed and the composite weight recorded. The tobacco weight is calculated by difference. The average tobacco weight per cigarette is obtained by dividing the difference by 15. Results are reported in grams.
Filter Type (Philip Morris)
Filter type is determined through visual or chemical techniques. After outer papers are removed, a visual examination is conducted. If a visual determination cannot be made, the sample is placed in acetone or sulfuric acid. Cellulose acetate dissolves in acetone and paper dissolves in sulfuric acid. Only 1 cigarette is required per determination.
Tip Dilution (Philip Morris)
Ventilation is the percentage of total air flow drawn through the sample via the sides of the filter generally entering through perforations in the cigarette tipping paper. The Borgwaldt PV-10 is used to perform the measurement. Results represent the average filter tip ventilation of 15 cigarettes and are reported in percent (%).
Personnel and Training Required
Staff must be trained in using the specialized equipment cited in the protocol.
A specially designed wooden measuring device is used to determine a cigarette’s or filtered cigar’s length. A Cerulean cd2 express or Borgwaldt S10 is used to measure the circumference. Acetone or sulfuric acid.
|Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection||No|
|Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual||No|
Mode of Administration
This validated protocol is more accurate than self-report protocols, and it addresses many physical attributes of cigarettes and cigars with well-established instructions.
The protocols indicate different approaches for analyzing various physical characteristics of cigarettes and cigars, and the Working Group has recommended the specific approaches to use based on the following rationale:
For Cigarette Length, the method described for Brown & Williamson has two advantages over other protocols: it does not require any special equipment, and it measures both the cigarette length and the filter length.
For Tobacco Weight, the procedure described for Philip Morris is most detailed and does not require special equipment.
For Filter Type, the procedure used by Philip Morris was chosen because it provides specific instructions on how to proceed if visual examination is not conclusive.
Cigarette Circumference is of interest due to its use in marketing to women and for its implied relevance to reduced health risks.
Filter Ventilation has significant impact on smoke strength perception and health perceptions.
|caDSR Common Data Elements (CDE)||Cigarette Property Assessment Text||4883616||CDE Browser|
Process and Review
Protocol Name from Source
Massachusetts Department of Health. (2000, July 24). Appendix 3: Physical measurement methods. In 1999 Massachusetts Benchmark Study: Final report. Boston: Author. legacy.library.ucsf.edu/documentStore/g/o/r/gor03c00/Sgor03c00.pdf
|Variable Name||Variable ID||Variable Description||dbGaP Mapping|
|PX730501030000||Ten cigarettes, laid mouth to butt, are more||N/A|
|PX730501040000||A Cerulean cd2 express or Borgwaldt S10 is more||N/A|
|PX730501080000||Filter type is determined through visual or more||N/A|
|PX730501090000||Ventilation is the percentage of total air more||N/A|
|PX730501010000||Ten cigarettes, laid mouth to butt, are more||N/A|
|PX730501020000||Ten cigarettes, laid mouth to butt, are more||N/A|
|PX730501050000||Tobacco weight is determined using an more||N/A|
|PX730501060000||Tobacco weight is determined using an more||N/A|
|PX730501070000||Tobacco weight is determined using an more||N/A|
Physical Properties of Tobacco Products
June 24, 2015
This measure is a set of standard physical tests for cigarettes and filtered cigars capturing the following design descriptors: Length, Circumference, Tobacco weight, Filter type, Filter ventilation.
The purpose of this measure is to evaluate and compare existing product modifications as well as new products and brands, which can help investigators understand the effect of design features on product chemistry.
Agent, Tobacco Regulatory Research, TRR, tobacco product design, filtered cigar, cigarette, cigarette length, cigarette circumference, filter ventilation, tobacco weight, filter composition, tobacco product feature, tobacco design descriptor, physical test of cigarettes, tobacco brand, automatic hopper loader, 1999 Massachusetts Benchmark Study, Brown & Williamson, Philip Morris, tobacco product modifications