The objective of our study was to describe the protocol for the development and testing of proactive Web-based chain-referral tools for increasing the access to Decide2Quit.org, a Web-assisted tobacco intervention system.
There is consistent evidence that impulsivity-like traits relate to problematic alcohol involvement; however, identifying mechanisms that account for this relation remains an important area of research. Drinking refusal self-efficacy (or a person's ability to resist alcohol; DRSE) has been shown to predict alcohol use among college students andmay be a relevantmediator of the impulsivity""alcohol relation. The current study examined the indirect effect of various constructs related to impulsivity (i.e., urgency, sensation seeking, and deficits in conscientiousness) via several facets of DRSE (i.e., social pressure, opportunistic, and emotional relief) on alcohol-related problems among a large sample of college students (N=891).
This study examined the construct validity of the TriPM in a sample of incarcerated offenders (N = 141) and found evidence of good construct validity in that the scales were related to conceptually relevant normal-range and dysfunctional personality trait criteria, as well as narcissism and deficits in empathy.
The Human Connectome Project in Development (HCP-D) is exploiting these tools to chart developmental changes in brain connectivity. When complete, the HCP-D will comprise approximately ~1750 open access datasets from 1300 3/4 healthy human participants, ages 5""21 years, acquired at four sites across the USA. This paper outlines the overarching aims of the project, the approach taken to acquire maximally informative data while minimizing participant burden, preliminary analyses, and discussion of the intended uses and limitations of the dataset.
This study used a citizen science approach and 16S profiling to assess the oral microbiome of 1500 adolescents around Spain and its relationships with lifestyle, diet, hygiene, and socioeconomic and environmental parameters.
This study examined two flaws in previous studies of psychopathic individuals. First if they are equally capable of deliberately manifesting other negative emotions (e.g. fear, guilt) and second if the evaluated participants in instructed-processing condition were not actually increasing their own emotional reactions but were instead finding a way to mirror the other person"®s emotions. The study was designed to further research in this area, and to address these two important questions.
The purpose of the current study is to describe an approach to explaining health disparities in terms of social determinants in the context of a transdisciplinary center grant of the Mid-South Transdisciplinary Collab- orative Center (TCC). Specifically, this paper discusses one component of the Social Determinants of Health (SDH) Core of the Mid-South TCC that consulted with new and ongoing center grant projects to assess the potential for incorporating SDH into their ongoing analyses.
The current study is the first to ex- amine concordance between purchase receipt (the gold standard) and advertised price for cigarettes in a representative sample of US tobacco retailers. This study also examined inter-rater reliability of adver- tised price, and the extent to which discrepancy be- tween receipt and advertised price was related to the presence of a discount and to store type.
Action Learning Collaboratives (ALCs), whereby teams apply quality improvement (QI) tools and methods, have successfully improved patient care delivery and outcomes. We adapted and tested the ALC model as a community-based obesity prevention intervention focused on physical activity and healthy eating.
The overarching aim of the pre- sent study was to examine patients"® attitudes toward participating in biobank research using an experimental study design that randomly assigned participants to different consent and data sharing conditions.
In this trial, we will investigate the utility of phone-delivered MT for PWLH. The primary outcomes comprise feasibility and acceptability of phone-delivery; secondary outcomes are estimates of efficacy of MT on adherence to ART and safer sexual practices as well as on their hypothesized antecedents.
The relation between "impulsivity," intentions-to-drink, and alcohol consumption has remained understudied. As a part of a larger study, 77 participants (60.5% female, 76.3% White, M age = 20.8) completed 10 days of daily diary reports regarding their intention to use alcohol and alcohol consumption. Hier- archical linear modeling (HLM) was used to estimate within-person relations between intentions-to-drink and subsequent alcohol use.
Latinos bear a disproportionate burden of the dual pandemic of obesity and diabetes. However, successful interventions addressing this disparity through primary care are lacking. To address this gap, the 5-year Vida Sana (Healthy Life) study tests a culturally adapted and technology-enhanced group-based Diabetes Prevention Programintervention in a randomized controlled trial with overweight/obese Latino adultswho havemetabolic syndrome and/or pre-diabetes.
In this chapter, we focus our attention on language phenotypes that have shown significant promise in current research on developmental language disorders and that are grounded in what is known about typical language acquisition. This line of research not only is important for advancing our understanding about the underlying etiology of these disorders, which can have lasting impact on the lives of the children, but also holds the potential for discovering the genetic bases of language, the most remarkable achievement of human evolution.
We sought to assess sexual risk behavior and neighborhood- level indicators of social and drug disorder exposure in a cohort of non-drug users (NDU) and drug users (CDU). We analyzed data from 415 participants enrolled in a 12 month study of genetics and environment on drug use trajec- tories. Participants completed the HIV Risk-taking Behavior Scale, Addiction Severity Index, and PhenX Drug Use Survey. Neighbor- hood risk was determined using the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology (NIfETy).
This article describes the methodology of the first population-based study of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women aged 16-64 years residing in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico (PR).
Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with infant birth and postnatal growth outcomes, but reported findings have been inconsistent, especially in relation to postnatal growth and adiposity outcomes. In a mother""offspring cohort in Singapore, maternal plasma vitamin D was measured between 26 and 28 weeks of gestation, and anthropometric measurements were obtained from singleton offspring during the first 2 years of life with 3-month follow-up intervals to examine birth, growth and adiposity outcomes.
This study conducted a randomized clinical trial to determine the following aims: 1) whether levels of alcohol abstinence during the last 3 months of treatment, and a 12-month follow-up period vary by CM condition; 2) whether groups differ on secondary alcohol outcomes, drug use, psychiatric severity, HIV risk behavior, and cigarette smoking; and 3) identify ANA-based moderators of CM treatment response across and within CM conditions.
The SCD community and H3ABioNet members joined forces at a recent SCD Ontology workshop to develop an ontology covering aspects of SCD under the classes: phenotype, diagnostics, therapeutics, quality of life, disease modifiers and disease stage. The aimof the workshop was for participants to contribute their expertise to development of the structure and contents of the SCD ontology. Here we describe the proceedings of the Sickle Cell Disease Ontology Workshop held in Cape Town South Africa in February 2016 and its outcomes. The objective of the workshop was to bring together experts in SCD from around the world to contribute their expertise to the development of various aspects of the SCD ontology.
The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of several variations of DEQ items, which assessed the extent to which participants (1) feel any substance effect(s), (2) feel high, (3) like the effects, (4) dislike the effects, and (5) want more of the substance using 100mm Visual Analog Scales.
We investigated whether self-collection of cervicovaginal samples for HPV DNA tests would be associated with increased uptake of screening compared with clinic based collection of samples. Furthermore, we compared the quality of samples collected by both approaches for use in HPV genotyping.
We describe the design of the recently completed National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network's tobacco, alcohol, prescription medications, and substance use/misuse screen and brief assessment tool validation study. Study aims included to: develop a 2-stage screening and brief assessment tool (TAPS Tool) to detect substance use, problem use, and SUD among adult primary care patients; examine the validity of both the screen component and the TAPS Tool by comparing them to reference standard screening and assessment measures of no use, problem use, and SUD; and determine the feasibility and acceptability of the self-administration and interviewer-administration of the tool.
The School Climate Measure (SCM) was developed and validated in 2010 in response to a dearth of psychometrically sound school climate instruments. This study sought to further validate the SCM on a large, diverse sample of Arizona public school adolescents (N=20,953).
Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in multiple disease conditions and accumulating evidence supports that the variation in serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, including deficiency, is under strong genetic control. However, the underlying genetic mechanism associated with vitamin 25(OH)D concentrations is poorly understood. We earlier reported a very high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and obesity in a Punjabi Sikh diabetic cohort as part of the Asian Indian diabetic heart study (AIDHS). Here we have performed the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of serum 25(OH)D on 3538 individuals from this Punjabi Sikh population.
The CHRIS study is a longitudinal, population-based study to assess the etiological role of genetic and environmental risk factors, and their interactions, on cardiovascular, neurological, and metabolic conditions.
Anxiety is a risk factor for many adverse neuropsychiatric and socioeconomic outcomes, and has been linked to functional and structural changes in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). However, the nature of these differences, as well as how they develop in children and adolescents, remains poorly understood. More effective interventions to minimize the negative consequences of anxiety require better understanding of its neurobiology in children. Recent research suggests that structural imaging studies may benefit from clearly delineating between cortical surface area and thickness when examining these associations, as these distinct cortical phenotypes are influenced by different cellular mechanisms and genetic factors. The present study examined relationships between cortical surface area and thickness of the VMPFC and a self-report measure of anxiety (SCARED-R) in 287 youths aged 7""20 years from the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics (PING) study.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the data collection efforts and validation of PhenX measures in the Personalized Medicine Research Project (PMRP) cohort. Thirty-six measures were chosen from the PhenX Toolkit within the following domains: demographics; anthropometrics; alcohol, tobacco and other substances; cardiovascular; environmental exposures; cancer; psychiatric; neurology; and physical activity and physical fitness. Eligibility criteria for the current study included: living PMRP subjects with known addresses who consented to future contact and were not currently living in a nursing home, available GWAS data from eMERGE I for subjects where age-related cataract, HDL, dementia and resistant hypertension were the primary phenotypes, thus biasing the sample to the older PMRP participants.
The GuLF STUDY is focused on prospectively determining both physical and mental health effects related to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill and is collecting information that can be used by individuals, communities and governments to better understand the consequences of oil spills and plan for future disasters.
The role of inhalation behaviors as predictors of nicotine uptakewas examined in the Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study (2012""2014), a study of 332 adults whose cigarette smoking was measured in a naturalistic environment (e.g., at home) with portable handheld topography devices.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the reliability and validity of a School Safety Officer scale among a diverse sample of public school adolescents in Arizona. It was expected that the SSO scale would: (a) exhibit acceptable internal consistency estimates; (b) be unrelated to demographic variables (race, grade, sex, and socioeconomic status [SES]); and, (c) demonstrate acceptable evidence of construct, known-groups, and criterion-related validity.
The report is an assessment of the ABCD Study protocols for the influence of social enviromental factors. It presents baseline data on psychometric characteristics (mean, standard devia- tion, range, skewness, coefficient alpha) of all measures within the battery. Effectiveness of the battery in dif- ferentiating 9""10 year olds who were classified as at higher and lower risk for marijuana use in adolescence was also evaluated.
In this study, we examined associations of brain structure with anxiety, depression, and im- pulsivity in children and adolescents. Participants were 7- to 21-year-olds (N = 328) from the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics (PING) study who completed high-resolution, 3-Tesla, T1-weighted MRI and self- report measures of anxiety, depression, and/or impulsivity. Cortical thickness and surface area were examined across cortical regions-of-interest (ROIs), and exploratory whole-brain analyses were also conducted.
The prevalence of smoking in methadone-maintained (MM) patients is over 80% and smoking-abstinence rates are strikingly low, even with the use of first-line smoking-cessation medications. Research has found that cigarettes increase the reinforcing properties of methadone; this interaction may be an additional, daily, challenge to smoking cessation in MM-smokers. This paper describes a novel approach in which patients who experience a particular barrier to achieving smoking abstinence are selected, and the impact of smoking-cessation medications on the identified barrier is evaluated.
The aims of this study were to describe lifestyle physical activity patterns in HIV-positive adults and to examine the influence of lifestyle physical activity on markers of cardiovascular health. Our secondary objective was to compare these relationships between HIV-positive adults and well-matched HIV-uninfected adults
The development and validation of survey measures for electronic nicotine and non-nicotine delivery system (ENDS) use has not kept pace with the burgeoning research on them. This, along with the diverse and evolving nature of ENDS, presents several unique measurement challenges and hampers surveillance and tobacco regulatory research efforts. In this commentary, we identify four important areas related to ENDS use (describing ENDS products; defining current use; evaluating frequency and quantity of use; and characterizing devices and eliquids) and summarize a selective review of the measurement and definitions of these constructs across prominent national tobacco use surveys and 30 projects within the 14 federally-funded Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science.
This study examined the associations between perceived discrimination and use of six tobacco products (cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, hookah, and smokeless tobacco) in a diverse sample of 1,068 adults in the United States.
It has been suggested that dietary fiber intake can influence the gastrointestinal microbiota and the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, few studies have examined fermentable fiber intake and its role in IBD patients. We aimed to determine the relationship between dietary fiber intake and IBD severity as well as disease-related quality of life.
Using geographic information system (GIS)- and Census-based approaches for measuring the physical and social neighborhood environment at the census tract-level versus an audit approach on associations with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio, data was evaluated from the 2012-2014 Women and Their Children"®s Health (WaTCH) Study (n = 940).
The current study evaluated the extent to which psychopathy and its distinctive facets, indexed by the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, can be assessed effectively using traits from the dimensional model of personality pathology developed for DSM-5, operationalized by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5).
In the current study, we derived a personality-based assessment of psychopathic traits in a commu- nity sample. We then examined the concurrent nomological net- work and developmental precursors of these psychopathic traits to understand the development and continuity of these traits and their correlates across childhood and adolescence.
The current study examined co-occurrence of substance use and mental health problems across tobacco products among 13,617 youth aged 12""17 years from Wave 1 (2013""2014) of the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Participants self-reported ever cigarette, e-cigar- ette, smokeless tobacco, traditional cigar, cigarillo, filtered cigar, hookah, and other tobacco product use; al- cohol, marijuana, and other drugs; and lifetime substance use, internalizing and externalizing problems.
Both the long and short versions of SHIS are psychometrically sound measures of a more comprehensive conceptualization of self-help involvement for SUDs that can be used as part of an in-depth assessment or as a short measure that lessens respondent burden.
The study's goal was to characterize the nature, and clinical relevance, of SDIs' error-monitoring processes by comparing carefully isolated neural responses during the presentation of negative feedback to a) stimulant dependence status and b) lifetime stimulant use.
Quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) has been increasingly used to measure human body composition, but its use and validation in children is limited. This study compared body composition measurement by QMR and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in preschool children from Singapore"® s multi- ethnic Asian population.
In large epidemiological studies, in-depth body composition measurement methods are usually not feasible for cost and logistical reasons, and there is a need to identify anthropometric measures that adequately reflect neonatal adiposity. In a multiethnic Asian mother-offspring cohort in Singapore, anthropometric measures (weight, length, abdominal circumference, skinfold thicknesses) were measured using standardized protocols in newborn infants, and anthropometric indices [weight/length, weight/length2 (body mass index, BMI), weight/length3 (ponderal index, PI)] derived.
Most studies linking maternal diet with offspring adiposity have focused on single nutrients or foods, but a dietary pattern approach is more representative of the overall diet. We thus aimed to investigate the relations between maternal dietary patterns and offspring adiposity in a multi-ethnic Asian mother"" offspring cohort in Singapore.
This study is the first community engagement phase of a project to develop a residential formaldehyde detection system. The objectives were to conduct a feasi- bility assessment for device use, and identify factors associated with concerns about environmental exposure and community interest in this device.
The purpose of the present study was to determine if individ- uals from the community with higher levels of psychopathic traits are less likely to stigmatize an individual diagnosed with psychopathy. In this study, we investigated two hypotheses. We hypothesized a nega- tive relationship between high expression of psychopathic traits and stigmatization towards psychopaths, and also hypothesized that this negative relationship would be strongest within interpersonal-affective features due to their association with fearlessness.
Healthy Fit uses community health workers to extend public health department infrastructure and address Hispanic health disparities related to cardiovascular disease and access to preventive health services. We evaluated the effectiveness of Healthy Fit in 1) reaching Hispanic Americans facing health disparities, and 2) helping participants access preventive health services and make behavior changes to improve heart health.
This study examined the psychometric properties of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (PCL-5; Weathers, Litz, et al., 2013b) in 2 independent samples of veterans receiving care at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (N 468).
The study aims to evaluate the (1) feasibility, (2) estimated population MDD prevalence, and (3) diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the online LIDAS in subsamples of two Dutch cohorts: the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)
The current study is a review of the utility of psychopathy in violence risk assessment. The main aim of this article is to contrast and discuss the utility of two different ways of conceptualizing and measuring the psychopathic personality, namely through the PCL scales and the CAPP.
This is a review of the ABCD study the major considerations that went into deciding what constructs to cover in the demographics, physical health and mental health domains, as well as the process of selecting measures, piloting and refining the originally proposed battery. We present a description of the baseline battery, as well as the six-month interim assessments and the one-year follow-up assessments.
Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identif?ed numerous variants that have a positive association with several diseases.1 However, in prevention efforts, aside from gene therapy, it is not feasible to modify the genetic determinants of risk, only to modify the environmental factors that interact with those genetic determinants to cause disease. Thus, it is critical to determine what these environmental factors are in order to target prevention efforts.
In this study, we aimed to characterize the infant BMI peak and to assess its predictors and associations with later childhood cardio- metabolic risk markers in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort.
Examined the associations between gains in height, BMI and adiposity in infancy and early childhood and later BP in an Asian birth cohort, the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study.
Polymorphic variants within human melanocortin-3 receptor gene (MC3R) gene have been associated with obesity. However, its influence on infancy and early childhood adiposity has not been reported before. We assessed associations between genotype at polymorphic sites within MC3R with early childhood adiposity and interaction with early childhood appetitive traits.
Diet plays an important role in the susceptibility and clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other functional gastrointestinal disorders. This study examined the differences between fiber and fat as it relates to IBD severity
We analyzed the main effects of PON1, as well as the interactions between PON1 and dietary vegetable or fruit intake with the risk of total ischemic stroke (IS) and its subtypes in a family-based case-control study conducted among 2158 Chinese participants (1007 IS cases and 1151 IS-free controls) from 918 families.
In this study, we examined associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and amygdala volume by age across childhood and adolescence to test whether socioeconomic disadvantage would be associated with larger amygdala volume at younger ages but with smaller amygdala volume at older ages. We then examined whether SES and amygdala volume were associated with children"®s levels of anxiety and depression.
While data suggests that tobacco users have more difficulty achieving cannabis cessation, this study performs analyses of clinical trial data sets to provide insight into the moderating variables contributing to this relationship, as well as changes in tobacco use during cannabis treatment.
We propose a standard methodology for data collection in stroke genetics studies to establish a best practice approach, sharing lessons learned through the ISGC. We outline the appropriate selection of case and control subjects and delineate the phenotypic data to collect, including minimum and preferred data points.
The objective of this study is to characterize profiles of obese depressed participants using baseline data collected from October 2014 through December 2016 for an ongoing randomized controlled trial (n = 409) in Bay Area, California, USA. Four comorbidity severity categories were defined by interaction of the binary levels of body mass index (BMI) and depression Symptom Checklist 20 (SCL20) scores.
In this RCT pilot study, "DASH for Asthma", we sought to examine the potential efficacy of a behavioural intervention promoting Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) to improve asthma control in adults with uncontrolled asthma and to determine whether a full-scale trial would be warranted according to a priori decision rules. The main study aims were to estimate the 95% confidence intervals of the net-of-control effects of the DASH behavioural intervention on the primary outcome, change in asthma control measured by the Juniper Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) , and on secondary outcomes including specific manifestations of asthma indicative of current impairment (e.g. lung function, symptoms and rescue medication use) and future risk (e.g. asthma exacerbations). In addition, changes in DASH concordance index, adherence to the primary DASH daily goals, and changes in weight, blood pressure and lipids were assessed.
The development and potential co-development of traits related to impulsivity and sensation seeking across adolescence has garnered substantial attentionwithin the extant literature. Someprior research suggests that facets show distinct patterns of change across adolescence and that intraindividual changes in these traits may be unrelated. However, the extant literature is somewhat hampered bymeasurement issues and inconsistent findings. Using an accelerated longitudinal design in a sample of adolescents (n=1018; ages 11""16), changes in negative urgency, positive urgency, and sensation seeking were examined.
This article provides an review of the ABCD Study Substance Use Workgroup, provides the goals for the workgroup, rationale for the substance use battery, and includes details on the substance use module methods and measurement tools used during baseline, 6-month and 1-year follow-up assessment time-points.
A feasibility study was conducted to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a 16-week intervention protocol for weight loss and management that combined daily text messages and biweekly peer group sessions
The Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) and resulting tsunami of March 11, 2011 gave rise to devastating damage on the Pacific coast of the Tohoku region. The Tohoku Medical Megabank Project (TMM), which is being conducted by Tohoku University Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization (ToMMo) and Iwate Medical University Iwate Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization (IMM), has been launched to realize creative reconstruction and to solve medical problems in the aftermath of this disaster.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a heterogeneous collection of chronic inflammatory disorders of the digestive tract. Clinical, genetic, and pathological heterogeneity makes it increasingly difficult to translate efficacy studies into real-world practice. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive natural history registry derived from multi-year observational data to facilitate effectiveness and clinical phenotypic research in IBD.
Our study builds upon previous mapping work to investigate the number of CDEs that could be identified using a varying level of commonness threshold in a real-world data repository, the Database of Phenotypes and Genotypes (dbGaP). In an analyzed collection of mapped variables from 426 dbGaP studies, only 1,414 PhenX variables (PHENotypes and eXposures; a CDE initiative) are observed out of all 24,938 defined PhenX variables.
The Standardized Tobacco Assessment for Retail Settings (STARS) was designed to characterise the availability, placement, promotion and price of tobacco products, with items chosen for relevance to regulating the retail tobacco environment. This study describes the process to develop the STARS instrument and protocol employed by a collaboration of US government agencies, US state tobacco control programmes (TCPs), advocacy organisations, public health attorneys and researchers from the National Cancer Institute"®s State and Community Tobacco Control (SCTC) Research Initiative.
SCCRIP is a cohort study with prospective follow-up, ongoing data accrual, and retrospective collection of exten- sive clinical history. The overarching goal of SCCRIP is to under- stand the clinical, biological, and psychosocial progression of SCD and factors contributing to early mortality across the lifespan, with the ultimate goal of facilitating effective therapies. The objectives are two-fold: (1) to establish a longitudinal clinical cohort of patients with SCD; and (2) to establish a biorepository of DNA, urine, and plasma.
The PLatform for the Analysis, Translation, and Organization of large-scale data (PLATO), a software tool equipped to handle multi-omic data for hundreds of thousands of samples to explore complexity using genetic interactions, environment-wide association studies and gene""environment interactions, phenome-wide association studies, as well as copy number and rare variant analyses. Using the data from the Marshfield Personalized Medicine Research Project, a site in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network, we apply each feature of PLATO to type 2 diabetes and demonstrate how PLATO can be used to uncover the complex etiology of common traits.
The current paper discusses results from one component of a year-long study of a new 38- unit, single-site HF program located in Indianapolis, Indiana. The stakeholders were particularly interested in understanding HF"®s ability to improve social integration of residents, and therefore, this was a major goal of the study. The primary questions guiding this arm of the study were: (1) What changes in residents"® social network size and quality occurred over the course of the first year of the program"®s services?; (2) How did residents perceive changes to their social networks and social support?; and (3) How were changes in social networks and support related to housing attainment?
The current pilot study tested the feasibility and pre- liminary efficacy of postpartum progesterone replacement in preventing relapse to smoking in postpartum women with a history of pre-pregnancy smoking.
Many sleep questionnaires are utilized by the epidemiological and genetic research communities. This paper reviewed sleep-related questions and answers commonly used in epidemiological studies (focused on sleep apnea and snoring), with an emphasis on the utility of the response options.