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Protocol - Discrimination

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Description:

The Major Experiences and Everyday Discrimination Scales include 19 interviewer-administered, yes-or-no and frequency response category questions. The Major Experiences subscale includes 9 questions about employment, housing, and education; the Everyday Discrimination subscale includes 10 questions about interactions with other people, including courtesy, respect, and harassment. A follow-up question to "yes" responses is also administered to probe about the reason for the discrimination as being related to race, gender, age, religion, disability, and so forth.

Protocol:

Major Experiences of Discrimination

"In the following questions, we are interested in the way other people have treated you or your beliefs about how other people have treated you. Can you tell me if any of the following has ever happened to you:"

1. At any time in your life, have you ever been unfairly fired?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

1.1. If "yes" follow-up with: What do you think was the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

1.2. When was the last time this happened?

[ ] 1 Past week

[ ] 2 Past month

[ ] 3 Past year

[ ] 4 More than a year ago

1.3. How many times has this happened during your lifetime?

2. For unfair reasons, have you ever not been hired for a job?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

2.1. If "yes" follow-up with: What do you think was the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

2.2. When was the last time this happened?

[ ] 1 Past week

[ ] 2 Past month

[ ] 3 Past year

[ ] 4 More than a year ago

2.3. How many times has this happened during your lifetime?

3. Have you ever been unfairly denied a promotion?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

3.1. If "yes" follow-up with: What do you think was the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

3.2. When was the last time this happened?

[ ] 1 Past week

[ ] 2 Past month

[ ] 3 Past year

[ ] 4 More than a year ago

3.3. How many times has this happened during your lifetime?

4. Have you ever been unfairly stopped, searched, questioned, physically threatened or abused by the police?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

4.1. If "yes" follow-up with: What do you think was the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

4.2. When was the last time this happened?

[ ] 1 Past week

[ ] 2 Past month

[ ] 3 Past year

[ ] 4 More than a year ago

4.3. How many times has this happened during your lifetime?

5. Have you ever been unfairly discouraged by a teacher or advisor from continuing your education?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

5.1. If "yes" follow-up with: What do you think was the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

5.2. When was the last time this happened?

[ ] 1 Past week

[ ] 2 Past month

[ ] 3 Past year

[ ] 4 More than a year ago

5.3. How many times has this happened during your lifetime?

6. Have you ever been unfairly prevented from moving into a neighborhood because the landlord or a realtor refused to sell or rent you a house or apartment?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

6.1. If "yes" follow-up with: What do you think was the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

6.2. When was the last time this happened?

[ ] 1 Past week

[ ] 2 Past month

[ ] 3 Past year

[ ] 4 More than a year ago

6.3. How many times has this happened during your lifetime?

7. Have you ever moved into a neighborhood where neighbors made life difficult for you or your family?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

7.1. If "yes" follow-up with: What do you think was the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

7.2. When was the last time this happened?

[ ] 1 Past week

[ ] 2 Past month

[ ] 3 Past year

[ ] 4 More than a year ago

7.3. How many times has this happened during your lifetime?

8. Have you ever been unfairly denied a bank loan?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

8.1. If "yes" follow-up with: What do you think was the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

8.2. When was the last time this happened?

[ ] 1 Past week

[ ] 2 Past month

[ ] 3 Past year

[ ] 4 More than a year ago

8.3. How many times has this happened during your lifetime?

9. Have you ever received service from someone such as a plumber or car mechanic that was worse than what other people get?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

9.1. If “yes” follow-up with: What do you think was the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

9.2. When was the last time this happened?

[ ] 1 Past week

[ ] 2 Past month

[ ] 3 Past year

[ ] 4 More than a year ago

9.3. How many times has this happened during your lifetime?

The Everyday Discrimination Scale

In your day-to-day life, how often do any of the following things happen to you?

10. You are treated with less courtesy than other people are.

[ ] 1 Almost every day

[ ] 2 At least once a week

[ ] 3 A few times a month

[ ] 4 A few times a year

[ ] 5 Less than once a year

[ ] 6 Never

10.1. If "A few times a year" or more frequently, follow-up with: What do you think is the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

11. You are treated with less respect than other people are.

[ ] 1 Almost every day

[ ] 2 At least once a week

[ ] 3 A few times a month

[ ] 4 A few times a year

[ ] 5 Less than once a year

[ ] 6 Never

11.1. If "A few times a year" or more frequently, follow-up with: What do you think was the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

12. You receive poorer service than other people at restaurants or stores.

[ ] 1 Almost every day

[ ] 2 At least once a week

[ ] 3 A few times a month

[ ] 4 A few times a year

[ ] 5 Less than once a year

[ ] 6 Never

12.1. If "A few times a year" or more frequently, follow-up with: What do you think is the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

13. People act as if they think you are not smart.

[ ] 1 Almost every day

[ ] 2 At least once a week

[ ] 3 A few times a month

[ ] 4 A few times a year

[ ] 5 Less than once a year

[ ] 6 Never

13.1. If "A few times a year" or more frequently, follow-up with: What do you think is the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

14. People act as if they are afraid of you.

[ ] 1 Almost every day

[ ] 2 At least once a week

[ ] 3 A few times a month

[ ] 4 A few times a year

[ ] 5 Less than once a year

[ ] 6 Never

14.1. If "A few times a year" or more frequently, follow-up with: What do you think is the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

15. People act as if they think you are dishonest.

[ ] 1 Almost every day

[ ] 2 At least once a week

[ ] 3 A few times a month

[ ] 4 A few times a year

[ ] 5 Less than once a year

[ ] 6 Never

15.1. If "A few times a year" or more frequently, follow-up with: What do you think is the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

16. People act as if they’re better than you are.

[ ] 1 Almost everyday

[ ] 2 At least once a week

[ ] 3 A few times a month

[ ] 4 A few times a year

[ ] 5 Less than once a year

[ ] 6 Never

16.1. If "A few times a year" or more frequently, follow-up with: What do you think is the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

17. You are called names or insulted.

[ ] 1 Almost every day

[ ] 2 At least once a week

[ ] 3 A few times a month

[ ] 4 A few times a year

[ ] 5 Less than once a year

[ ] 6 Never

17.1. If "A few times a year" or more frequently, follow-up with: What do you think is the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

18. You are threatened or harassed.

[ ] 1 Almost every day

[ ] 2 At least once a week

[ ] 3 A few times a month

[ ] 4 A few times a year

[ ] 5 Less than once a year

[ ] 6 Never

18.1. If "A few times a year" or more frequently, follow-up with: What do you think is the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

19. You are followed around in stores.

[ ] 1 Almost every day

[ ] 2 At least once a week

[ ] 3 A few times a month

[ ] 4 A few times a year

[ ] 5 Less than once a year

[ ] 6 Never

19.1. If "A few times a year" or more frequently, follow-up with: What do you think is the main reason for this experience?

[ ] 1 Your ancestry or national origin

[ ] 2 Your gender

[ ] 3 Your race

[ ] 4 Your age

[ ] 5 Your religion

[ ] 6 Your height

[ ] 7 Your weight

[ ] 8 Some other aspect of your physical appearance

[ ] 9 Your sexual orientation

[ ] 10 Your education or income level

OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER

[ ] 1 A physical disability

[ ] 2 Your shade of skin color

[ ] 3 Your tribe

Other (SPECIFY) _______________

Protocol Name from Source:

Major Experiences and Everyday Discrimination Scales

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

The interviewer must be trained to conduct personal interviews with individuals from the general population. The interviewer must be trained and found to be competent (i.e., tested by an expert).

Equipment Needs

Either a paper-and-pencil or computer-assisted instrument may be used. If a computer-assisted instrument is used, computer software may be necessary to develop the instrument. The interviewer will need a laptop computer/handheld computer to administer a computer-assisted questionnaire.

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Interviewer-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adult

Participants:

Adults, ages 25-65 years

Specific Instructions:

Although the Major Experiences and Everyday Discrimination Scales were validated on adults, aged 25-65 years old, the PhenX Social Environments Working Group recommends that it can be used with adults of all ages. The Everyday Discrimination Scale may also be used with adolescents.

Selection Rationale

The Major Experiences and Everyday Discrimination Scales were selected because they are widely used, validated protocols with good psychometric properties. Additionally, the scales have been used in multiple racial/ethnic populations in the United States, with increasing use internationally.

Language

English, Spanish

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Social Environment Discrimination Scale 3144954 CDE Browser
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel #2]] (ERP 2) reviewed the measures in the Demographics, Social Environments, and Environmental Exposures domains.

Guidance from ERP 2 includes:

• Updated protocol

• New Data Dictionary

Back-compatible: there are changes to the Data Dictionary, previous version of the Data Dictionary and Variable mapping in Toolkit archive ([link[phenxtoolkit.org/domains/view/210000#tab5content" target="_blank">link)

Source

Williams, D. R. (2015). Measuring discrimination resource. http://scholar.harvard.edu/davidrwilliams/node/32777

Williams, D. R., Yu, Y., Jackson, J., & Anderson, N. (1997). Racial differences in physical and mental health: Socioeconomic status, stress, and discrimination. Journal of Health Psychology, 2(3), 335–351.

General References

Kessler, R. C., Mickelson, K. D., & Williams, D. R. (1999). The prevalence, distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40, 208-230.

Krieger, N., Smith, K., Naishadham, D., Hartman, C., & Barbeau, E. M. (2005). Experiences of discrimination: Validity and reliability of a self-report measure for population health research on racism and health. Social Science and Medicine, 61, 1576-1596.

Protocol ID:

210302

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Discrimination

Release Date:

May 31, 2016

Definition

This measure is a questionnaire to assess perceived discriminatory experiences.

Purpose

This measure can be used by respondents to report lifetime discriminatory experiences. Discrimination is an important factor in an individual’s health because it affects access to employment, housing, and education opportunities and can affect self-esteem and cause stress.

Keywords

Social Environments, Major Experiences and Everyday Discrimination Scales, prejudice, unfair treatment