Protocol - Involuntary Weight Loss
An interviewer-administered two-item questionnaire assessing weight loss of more than five pounds in the past 12 months and an individuals intent to lose weight.
Although the original Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study was conducted in the geriatric population, the PhenX Geriatrics Working Group acknowledges this protocol may be useful with other adult populations.
1. Have you lost 5 or more pounds at any time over the past 12 months?
1[ ]Yes (if yes, go to 1b)
0[ ]No (go to question 2)
8[ ]Dont know (go to question 2)
7[ ]Refused (go to question 2)
1b. How much weight did you lose in the past 12 months? If you are not sure, please make your best guess.
[ ] ___ ___ ___ pounds
8[ ]Dont know/dont remember
2. Were you trying to lose weight?
1[ ]Yes (go to question 2b)
0[ ]No (go to question 3)
8[ ]Dont know (go to question 3)
7[ ]Refused (go to question 3)
2b. What methods did you use to lose weight?
-1[ ]Reduced food intake (decreased quantities of all food eaten)
-1[ ]Limiting your intake to only 1 or 2 types of food (e.g., ate only grapefruit or only lean meats)
-1[ ]Reduced fat intake
-1[ ]Use of fat/caloric modified foods (low fat, fat-free)
-1[ ]Use of a liquid diet formula such as Slim-fast or Optifast
-1[ ]Commercial weight loss program (Weight Watcher, Jenny Craig, or self-help group (Over Eaters Anonymous, TOPS)
-1[ ]Decreased alcohol intake
-1[ ]Increased exercise
-1[ ]Increased smoking
-1[ ]Diet pills (prescription or nonprescription)
-1[ ]Stomach surgery/intestinal bypass
-1[ ]Consulted with dietician/physician/other professional
-1[ ]Other (Please specify): _______________________
3. What do you think caused this weight loss? (Interviewer note: Please check all that apply)
-1[ ]Illness (please specify): _____________
-1[ ]Surgery (please specify): ____________
-1[ ]Stressful time
-1[ ]Loss of appetite
-1[ ]Change in eating habits
-1[ ]Change in exercise habits/amount of physical activity
-1[ ]Other (please specify): _______________________
-1[ ]Dont know
Personnel and Training Required
The interviewer must be trained to conduct personal interviews with individuals from the general population. The interviewer must be trained and found to be competent (i.e., tested by an expert) at the completion of personal interviews. The interviewer should be trained to prompt respondents further if a "dont know" response is provided.
Equipment NeedsThe PhenX Working Group acknowledges that these questions can be administered in a computerized or noncomputerized format (i.e., paper-and-pencil instrument). Computer software is necessary to develop computer-assisted instruments. The interviewer will require a laptop computer/handheld computer to administer a computer-assisted questionnaire.
|Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection||No|
|Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual||No|
Mode of Administration
Adults aged 70-79 years at baseline
These questions were used in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, and recognized as making a valuable contribution to the study of body composition and strength in old age and how these changes relate to an individuals health and disability.
|Human Phenotype Ontology||Weight Loss||HP:0001824||HPO|
|caDSR Form||PhenX PX251101 - Involuntary Weight Loss||6873351||caDSR Form|
Process and Review
Protocol Name from Source
Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (Health ABC), Weight History, Version 1.1a
Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, Weight History, Question 52 and 52b version 1.1a 8/22/97
Lee, J. S., Kritchevsky, S. B., Tylavsky, F. A., Harris, T., Everhart, J., Simonsick, E. M., ... Newman, A. B. (2004). Weight-loss intention in the well-functioning, community-dwelling elderly: Associations with diet quality, physical activity, and weight change. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80, 466-474.
Weyant, R. J., Newman, A. B., Kritchevsky, S. B., Bretz, W. A., Corby, P. M., Ren, D., ... Harris, T. (2004). Periodontal disease and weight loss in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52, 547-553.
Lee, J. S., Kritchevsky, S. B., Harris, T. B., Tylavsky, F., Rubin, S. M., & Newman, A. B. (2005). Short-term weight change in community-dwelling older adults. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82, 644-650.
Lee, J. S., Kritchevsky, S. B., Tylavsky, F., Harris, T., Simonsick, E. M., Rubin, S. M., & Newman, A. B. (2005). Weight change, weight change intention, and the incidence of mobility limitation in well-functioning community-dwelling older adults. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 60, 1007-1012.
Newman, A. B., Lee, J. S., Visser, M., Goodpaster, B. H., Kritchevsky, S. B., Tylavsky, F. A., ... Harris, T. B. (2005). Weight changes and the conservation of lean mass in old age: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82, 872-878.
Koster, A., van Gool, C. H., Kempen, G. I., Penninx, B. W., Lee, J. S., Rubin, S. M., ... Kritchevsky, S. B. (2010). Late-life depressed mood and weight change contribute to the risk of each other. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18, 236-244.
Murphy, R. A., Nalls, M. A., Keller, M., Garcia, M., Kritchevsky, S. B., Tylavsky, F. A., ... Harris, T. B. (2013). Candidate gene association study of BMI-related loci, weight, and adiposity in old age. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 68, 661-666.
Murphy, R. A., Patel, K. V., Kritchevsky, S. B., Houston, D. K., Newman, A. B, Koster, A., ... Harris, T. B. (2014). Weight change, body composition, and risk of mobility disability and mortality in older adults: A population-based cohort study. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 62, 1476-1483.
|Variable Name||Variable ID||Variable Description||dbGaP Mapping|
|PX251101030101||What do you think caused this weight loss? more||N/A|
|PX251101030102||What do you think caused this weight loss? more||N/A|
|PX251101030104||What do you think caused this weight loss? more||N/A|
|PX251101030103||What do you think caused this weight loss? more||N/A|
|PX251101010100||Have you lost 5 or more pounds at any time more||N/A|
|PX251101020100||Were you trying to lose weight?||N/A|
|PX251101020201||What methods did you use to lose weight?||N/A|
|PX251101020202||What methods did you use to lose weight?||N/A|
|PX251101010202||How much weight did you lose in the past 12 more||N/A|
|PX251101010201||How much weight did you lose in the past 12 more||N/A|
Involuntary Weight Loss
July 2, 2018
A questionnaire assessing involuntary weight loss in the past 12 months.
Involuntary weight loss is a common problem in the geriatric population and is associated with diseases, frailty, disability, and an increased risk of mortality. It is important not only to identify weight loss but also to assess whether the weight loss was intentional (did the patient try to lose weight) or unintentional (occurring without any effort to lose weight).
involuntary weight loss, "Health, aging, and Body Composition Study", Health ABC, geriatrics, National Institute on Aging, NIA, Weight change, gerontology, aging
|Protocol ID||Protocol Name|
|251101||Involuntary Weight Loss|
Oyedeji, C. I., et al. (2022) The Sickle Cell Disease Functional Assessment (SCD-FA) tool: a feasibility pilot study. Pilot and Feasibility Studies. 2022 March; 8(1): 14. doi: 10.1186/s40814-022-01005-3