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Protocol - Community Risk and Protective Factors

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Description:

The protocol includes 33 self-administered questions from the Communities That Care Youth Survey (http://www.communitiesthatcare.net/). The protocol includes eight subscales: Low Neighborhood Attachment (three items on a 4-point scale), Community Disorganization (five items on a 4-point scale), Transitions and Mobility (four items on a 5-point scale), Perceived Availability of Handguns (one item on a 4-point scale), Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement (five items on a 4-point scale), Rewards for Prosocial Involvement (three items on a 4-point scale), Perceived Availability of Drugs (four items on a 4-point scale), and Laws and Norms Favorable to Drug Use (seven items on a 4-point scale).

Protocol:

Communities That Care 2010 Youth Survey

1. This is not a test, so there are no right or wrong answers; we would like you to work quickly, so that you can finish.

2. All of the questions should be answered by marking one of the answer spaces. If you don’t find an answer that fits exactly, use one that comes closest. If any question does not apply to you, or you are not sure what it means, just leave it blank.

3. Your answers will be read automatically by a computer. Please follow the instructions carefully.

  • Use only a blue or black pencil.
  • Make heavy marks inside the circles.
  • Erase cleanly or mark a big "X" over any answer you wish to change.
  • Make no other markings or comments on the answer pages, since they interfere with the automatic reading. (If you want to add a comment about any questions, please use the space provided on page 12.)

4. Some of the questions have the following format:

Please mark in the circle which of the four words best describes how you feel about that sentence.

EXAMPLE: The Seattle Storm is a good basketball team.

[ ] YES!

[ ] yes

[ ] no

[ ] NO!

Mark (the BIG) YES! if you think the statement is definitely true for you.

Mark (the little) yes if you think the statement is mostly true for you.

Mark (the little) no if you think the statement is mostly not true for you.

Mark (the BIG) NO! if you think the statement is definitely not true for you.

These questions ask about the neighborhood and community where you live.

1. If you wanted to get some beer, wine, or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin), how easy would it be for you to get some? (82)

1 [ ] Very hard

2 [ ] Sort of hard

3 [ ] Sort of easy

4 [ ] Very easy

2. If you wanted to get some cigarettes, how easy would it be for you to get some? (83)

1 [ ] Very hard

2 [ ] Sort of hard

3 [ ] Sort of easy

4 [ ] Very easy

3. If a kid smoked marijuana in your neighborhood, would he or she be caught by the police? (84)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

4. If you wanted to get a drug like cocaine, LSD, or amphetamines, how easy would it be for you to get some? (85)

1 [ ] Very hard

2 [ ] Sort of hard

3 [ ] Sort of easy

4 [ ] Very easy

5. If a kid drank some beer, wine, or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin) in your neighborhood, would he or she be caught by the police? (86)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

6. If you wanted to get a handgun, how easy would it be for you to get one? (87)

1 [ ] Very hard

2 [ ] Sort of hard

3 [ ] Sort of easy

4 [ ] Very easy

7. If a kid carried a handgun in your neighborhood would he or she be caught by the police? (88)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

8. If you wanted to get some marijuana, how easy would it be for you to get some? (89)

1 [ ] Very hard

2 [ ] Sort of hard

3 [ ] Sort of easy

4 [ ] Very easy

9. If a kid smoked a cigarette in your neighborhood would he or she be caught by the police? (90)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

10. How wrong would most adults (over 21) in your neighborhood think it is for kids your age: (91)

a. to use marijuana?

1 [ ] Very wrong

2 [ ] Wrong

3 [ ] A little bit wrong

4 [ ] Not wrong at all

b. to drink alcohol?

1 [ ] Very wrong

2 [ ] Wrong

3 [ ] A little bit wrong

4 [ ] Not wrong at all

c. to smoke cigarettes?

1 [ ] Very wrong

2 [ ] Wrong

3 [ ] A little bit wrong

4 [ ] Not wrong at all

11. If I had to move, I would miss the neighborhood I now live in. (94)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

12. My neighbors notice when I am doing a good job and let me know about it. (95)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

13. I like my neighborhood.(96)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

14. There are lots of adults in my neighborhood I could talk to about something important. (97)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

15. How much do each of the following statements describe your neighborhood? (98)

a. Crime and/or drug selling

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

b. Fights

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

c. Lots of empty or abandoned buildings

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

d. Lots of graffiti

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

16. How many times have you changed homes since kindergarten? (99)

1 [ ] Never

2 [ ] One or two times

3 [ ] Three or four times

4 [ ] Five or six times

5 [ ] Seven or more times

17. There are people in my neighborhood who are proud of me when I do something well. (100)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

18. Which of the following activities for people your age are available in your community? (101)

a. Sports teams

4 [ ] Yes

1 [ ] No

b. Scouting

4 [ ] Yes

1 [ ] No

c. Boys and girls clubs

4 [ ] Yes

1 [ ] No

d. 4-H clubs

4 [ ] Yes

1 [ ] No

e. Service clubs

4 [ ] Yes

1 [ ] No

19. Have you changed schools (including changing from elementary to middle or middle to high school) in the past year? (102)

1 [ ] No

3 [ ] Yes

20. I feel safe in my neighborhood. (103)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

21. How many times have you changed schools (including changing from elementary to middle or middle to high school) since kindergarten? (104)

1 [ ] Never

2 [ ] One or two times

3 [ ] Three or four times

4 [ ] Five or six times

5 [ ] Seven or more times

22. I’d like to get out of my neighborhood. (105)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

23. Have you changed homes in the past year? (106)

1 [ ] No

3 [ ] Yes

24. There are people in my neighborhood who encourage me to do my best. (107)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

Scoring

Subscale

Reliability

Range

Scoring

Perceived Availability of Drugs

.88

1-4

Average items 1, 2, 8, 4

Laws and Norms Favorable to Drug Use

.82

1-4

Average items 3, 5, 7, 9, 10a, 10b, 10c

Low Neighborhood Attachment

.81

1-4

Average items 11, 13, 22

Neighborhood Rewards for Prosocial Involvement

.91

1-4

Average items 12, 17, 24

Neighborhood Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement

.80

1-4

Average items: 14, 18a, 18b, 18c, 18d, 18e

Community Disorganization

.83

1-4

Average items 15a, 15b, 15c, 15d, 20

Transitions and Mobility (alpha: N/A)

n/a

1-5

Average items 16, 19, 21, 23

Comparison with the CTC Normative Database.

Note: To obtain scores on the same metric as the CTC normative database, subtract 1 (from either each item, or from the means).

General Summary Scales

Scoring: averages of the above subscales

General Neighborhood Risk

.80

1-5

1) Reverse: Opportunities, Rewards, Attachment

2) Average: Opportunities-R, Rewards-R, Attachment-R, Disorganization, Transitions

Neighborhood Drug Risk

.88

1-4

Average: Laws and Norms & Perceived Availability

Protocol Name from Source:

Communities That Care Youth Survey

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adolescent

Participants:

Adolescents aged 12-18 years (grades 6-12)

Specific Instructions:

Items below constitute the Community Subscales from the CTC [Communities That Care] 2010 Youth Survey. Item numbers at the end in parentheses reflect the original item numbers in that survey for comparison. See the full CTC Survey in the reference list for comparison.

The numbers to the left of the response option brackets are for scoring purposes and they should NOT be included in the administered survey.

The numbers to the left of the response option brackets are for scoring purposes and they should not be included in the administered survey.

Selection Rationale

The Communities That Care Youth Survey is in the public domain and is available at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) website. The survey reliably predicts current and prospective substance use-related problem behaviors among adolescents as well as prospective substance abuse and dependence in adulthood. SAMHSA’s database of 300,000 youths from around the country enables investigators to derive normative distributions for comparison to newly collected data.

Language

Dutch, English, French, Spanish, Available in other languages

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Substance use Community Risk Factor Questionnaire Assessment Score 3371895 CDE Browser
Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel #3 (ERP 3) reviewed the measures in Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances, and Substance Abuse and Addiction domains.

Guidance from ERP 3 includes:

• No significant changes to measure

Back-compatible: NA no changes to Data Dictionary

Previous version in Toolkit archive (link)

Source

Arthur, M. W., Briney, J. S., Hawkins, J. D., Abbott, R. D., Brooke-Weiss, B. L., & Catalano, R. F. (2007). Measuring risk and protection in communities using the Communities That Care Youth Survey. Evaluation and Program Planning, 30(2), 197-211.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2004). Communities That Care (CTC) Youth Survey. Retrieved October 12, 2011, from http://store.samhsa.gov/product/Communities-That-Care-Youth-Survey/CTC020

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2011). Communities That Care Normative Database (CTC NDB). Retrieved November 3, 2015, from https://www.pmrts.samhsa.gov/pmrts/CommunitiesCares.aspx

General References

http://www.communitiesthatcare.net/research-results/

Bailey, J. A., Hill, K. G., Meacham, M. C., Young, S. E., & Hawkins, J. D. (2011). Strategies for characterizing complex phenotypes and environments: General and specific family environmental predictors of young adult tobacco dependence, alcohol use disorder, and co‐occurring problems. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 118(2-3), 444-451.

Beyers, J. M., Toumbourou, J. W., Catalano, R. F., Arthur, M. W., & Hawkins, J. D. (2004). A cross‐national comparison of risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use: The United States and Australia. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35(1), 3-16.

Dryfoos, J. G. (1991). Adolescents at risk: A summation of work in the field: Programs and policies. Journal of Adolescent Health, 12(8), 630-637.

Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance‐abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 64-105.

Hawkins, J. D., Herrenkohl, T., Farrington, D. P., Brewer, D., Catalano, R. F., & Harachi, T. W. (1998). A review of predictors of youth violence. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 106-146). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hawkins, J. D., Hill, K. G., Guo, J., & Battin, S. R. (1998, June). Common predictors of substance abuse, mental health and behavior disorders: Implications for prevention. Paper presented at the National Institute of Mental Health Office of Behavioral and Social Science, NIH Workshop on Prevention of Comorbidity, Bethesda, MD.

Hemphill, S. A., Heerde, J. A., Herrenkohl, T. I., Patton, G. C., Toumbourou, J. W., & Catalano, R. F. (2011). Risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use in the United States and Australia: A longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(3), 312-320.

Lipsey, M. W., & Derzon, J. H. (1998). Predictors of violent or serious delinquency in adolescence and early adulthood: A synthesis of longitudinal research. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 86-105). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (Eds.); Committee on Prevention of Mental Disorders, Institute of Medicine. (1994). Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for prevention intervention research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Pollard, J. A., Hawkins, J. D., & Arthur, M. W. (1999). Risk and protection: Are both necessary to understand diverse behavioral outcomes in adolescence? Social Work Research, 23(3), 145-158.

Protocol ID:

540101

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX540101_Activities_In_Community_4h_Clubs PX540101180400 Which of the following activities for people your age are available in your community? 4-H clubs 4 N/A
PX540101_Activities_In_Community_BoysGirls_Clubs PX540101180300 Which of the following activities for people your age are available in your community? Boys and girls clubs 4 N/A
PX540101_Activities_In_Community_Scouting PX540101180200 Which of the following activities for people your age are available in your community? Scouting 4 N/A
PX540101_Activities_In_Community_Service_Clubs PX540101180500 Which of the following activities for people your age are available in your community? Service Clubs 4 N/A
PX540101_Activities_In_Community_Sports_Teams PX540101180100 Which of the following activities for people your age are available in your community? Sports teams 4 N/A
PX540101_Adults_Attitude_Kid_Using_Alcohol PX540101100200 How wrong would most adults (over 21) in your neighborhood think it is for kids your age: to drink alcohol? 4 N/A
PX540101_Adults_Attitude_Kid_Using_Cigarettes PX540101100300 How wrong would most adults (over 21) in your neighborhood think it is for kids your age: to smoke cigarettes? 4 N/A
PX540101_Adults_Attitude_Kid_Using_Marijuana PX540101100100 How wrong would most adults (over 21) in your neighborhood think it is for kids your age: to use marijuana? 4 N/A
PX540101_Changed_Homes_In_Past_Year PX540101230000 Have you changed homes in the past year? 4 N/A
PX540101_Changed_Schools_In_Past_Year PX540101190000 Have you changed schools (including changing from elementary to middle or middle to high school) in the past year? 4 N/A
PX540101_Changed_Schools_Since_Kindergarten PX540101210000 How many times have you changed schools (including changing from elementary to middle or middle to high school) since kindergarten? 4 N/A
PX540101_Feel_Safe_In_Neighborhood PX540101200000 I feel safe in my neighborhood. 4 N/A
PX540101_Get_Beer_Wine_Liquor PX540101010000 If you wanted to get some beer, wine, or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin), how easy would it be for you to get some? 4 N/A
PX540101_Get_Cigarettes PX540101020000 If you wanted to get some cigarettes, how easy would it be for you to get some? 4 N/A
PX540101_Get_Cocaine_Lsd_Amphetamines PX540101040000 If you wanted to get a drug like cocaine, LSD, or amphetamines, how easy would it be for you to get some? 4 N/A
PX540101_Get_Handgun PX540101060000 If you wanted to get a handgun, how easy would it be for you to get one? 4 N/A
PX540101_Kid_Carried_Handgun_Get_Caught PX540101070000 If a kid carried a handgun in your neighborhood would he or she be caught by the police? 4 N/A
PX540101_Kid_Drank_Get_Caught PX540101050000 If a kid drank some beer, wine, or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin) in your neighborhood, would he or she be caught by the police? 4 N/A
PX540101_Kid_Smoked_Cigarette_Get_Caught PX540101090000 If a kid smoked a cigarette in your neighborhood would he or she be caught by the police? 4 N/A
PX540101_Kid_Smoked_Marijuana_Get_Caught PX540101030000 If a kid smoked marijuana in your neighborhood, would he or she be caught by the police? 4 N/A
PX540101_Like_Get_Out_Of_Neighborhood PX540101220000 I'd like to get out of my neighborhood. 4 N/A
PX540101_Like_My_Neighborhood PX540101130000 I like my neighborhood. 4 N/A
PX540101_Marijuana_How_Easy_For_You PX540101080000 If you wanted to get some marijuana, how easy would it be for you to get some? 4 N/A
PX540101_Neighbors_Notice_Good_Job PX540101120000 My neighbors notice when I am doing a good job and let me know about it. 4 N/A
PX540101_People_In_Neighborhood_Proud PX540101170000 There are people in my neighborhood who are proud of me when I do something well. 4 N/A
PX540101_People_In_Neighborhood_Who_Encourage PX540101240000 There are people in my neighborhood who encourage me to do my best. 4 N/A
PX540101_Statements_Describe_Neighborhood_Abandoned_Buildings PX540101150300 How much do each of the following statements describe your neighborhood? Lots of empty or abandoned buildings 4 N/A
PX540101_Statements_Describe_Neighborhood_Crime PX540101150100 How much do each of the following statements describe your neighborhood? Crime and/or drug selling 4 N/A
PX540101_Statements_Describe_Neighborhood_Fights PX540101150200 How much do each of the following statements describe your neighborhood? Fights 4 N/A
PX540101_Statements_Describe_Neighborhood_Graffiti PX540101150400 How much do each of the following statements describe your neighborhood? Lots of graffiti 4 N/A
PX540101_Talk_To_Adults_In_Neighborhood PX540101140000 There are lots of adults in my neighborhood I could talk to about something important. 4 N/A
PX540101_Times_Changed_Homes_Since_Kindergarten PX540101160000 How many times have you changed homes since kindergarten? 4 N/A
PX540101_Would_Miss_The_Neighborhood PX540101110000 If I had to move, I would miss the neighborhood I now live in. 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Community Risk and Protective Factors

Release Date:

November 21, 2016

Definition

This self-administered questionnaire assesses adolescents’ reports about the level and prevalence of exposure to substance use risk and protective factors in the community.

Purpose

This measure can be used to identify the specific community-related risk and protective factors that can predict adolescent (and later life) substance use and abuse.

Keywords

Adolescent, Self-report, Low Neighborhood Attachment, Community Disorganization, Transitions and Mobility, Perceived Availability of Handguns, Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement, Rewards for Prosocial Involvement, Perceived Availability of Drugs, Laws and Norms Favorable to Drug Use, Communities That Care Youth Survey, Community, Drug Abuse, Drug Use, Neighborhood, SAMHSA, Substance Abuse, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Substance Use, SAA, Substance Use-related Psychosocial Risk Factors