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Protocol - Family Risk and Protective Factors

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Description:

The protocol includes 38 self-administered questions from the Communities That Care Youth Survey (http://www.communitiesthatcare.net/). This protocol includes seven subscales: Poor Family Management (8 items on a 4-point scale), Family Conflict (3 items on a 4-point scale), Parental Attitudes Favorable to Antisocial Behavior (3 items on a 4-point scale), Attachment (4 items on a 4-point scale ), Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement (3 items on a 4-point scale), Rewards for Prosocial Involvement (4 items on a 4-point scale), Parental Attitudes Favorable toward Drug Use (3 items), and Family History of Antisocial Behavior (including Drug Use) (10 items on a 5-point scale). Attachment, Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement, and Rewards for Prosocial Involvement are protective (or promotive) factors; the remaining subscales are risk factors.

Protocol:

Communities That Care 2010 Youth Survey

Instructions

1. This is not a test, so there are no right or wrong answers; we would like you to work quickly, so that you can finish.

2. All of the questions should be answered by marking one of the answer spaces. If you don’t find an answer that fits exactly, use one that comes closest. If any question does not apply to you, or you are not sure what it means, just leave it blank.

3. Your answers will be read automatically by a computer. Please follow the instructions carefully.

  • Use only a blue or black pencil.
  • Make heavy marks inside the circles.
  • Erase cleanly or mark a big "X" over any answer you wish to change.
  • Make no other markings or comments on the answer pages, since they interfere with the automatic reading. (If you want to add a comment about any questions, please use the space provided on page 12.)

4. Some of the questions have the following format:

Please mark in the circle which of the four words best describes how you feel about that sentence.

EXAMPLE: The Seattle Storm is a good basketball team.

[ ] YES!

[ ] yes

[ ] no

[ ] NO!

Mark (the BIG) YES! if you think the statement is definitely true for you.

Mark (the little) yes if you think the statement is mostly true for you.

Mark (the little) no if you think the statement is mostly not true for you.

Mark (the BIG) NO! if you think the statement is definitely not true for you.

This set of questions asks about your family. When answering these questions please think about the people you consider to be your family. For example, parents, stepparents, grandparents, aunts, uncles, etc.

1. How wrong do your parents feel it would be for you to (108):

a. drink beer, wine or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin) regularly (at least once or twice a month)?

1 [ ] Very wrong

2 [ ] Wrong

3 [ ] A little bit wrong

4 [ ] Not wrong at all

b. smoke cigarettes?

1 [ ] Very wrong

2 [ ] Wrong

3 [ ] A little bit wrong

4 [ ] Not wrong at all

c. smoke marijuana?

1 [ ] Very wrong

2 [ ] Wrong

3 [ ] A little bit wrong

4 [ ] Not wrong at all

d. steal something worth more than $5?

1 [ ] Very wrong

2 [ ] Wrong

3 [ ] A little bit wrong

4 [ ] Not wrong at all

e. draw graffiti, or write things or draw pictures on buildings or other property (without the owner’s permission)?

1 [ ] Very wrong

2 [ ] Wrong

3 [ ] A little bit wrong

4 [ ] Not wrong at all

f. pick a fight with someone?

1 [ ] Very wrong

2 [ ] Wrong

3 [ ] A little bit wrong

4 [ ] Not wrong at all

2. Have any of your brothers or sisters ever (109):

a. drunk beer, wine or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin)?

1 [ ] No

5 [ ] Yes

0 [ ] I don’t have any brothers or sisters

b. smoked marijuana?

1 [ ] No

5 [ ] Yes

0 [ ] I don’t have any brothers or sisters

c. smoked cigarettes?

1 [ ] No

5 [ ] Yes

0 [ ] I don’t have any brothers or sisters

d. taken a handgun to school?

1 [ ] No

5 [ ] Yes

0 [ ] I don’t have any brothers or sisters

e. been suspended or expelled from school?

1 [ ] No

5 [ ] Yes

0 [ ] I don’t have any brothers or sisters

3. The rules in my family are clear. (110)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

4. Has anyone in your family ever had a severe alcohol or drug problem? (111)

1 [ ] No

5 [ ] Yes

5. People in my family often insult or yell at each other. (112)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

6. When I am not at home, one of my parents knows where I am and who I am with. (113)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

7. We argue about the same things in my family over and over. (114)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

8. If you drank some beer or wine or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin) without your parents’ permission, would you be caught by your parents? (115)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

9. My family has clear rules about alcohol and drug use. (116)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

10. If you carried a handgun without your parents’ permission, would you be caught by your parents? (117)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

11. If you skipped school, would you be caught by your parents? (118)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

12. My parents notice when I am doing a good job and let me know about it. (119)

1 [ ] Never or almost never

2 [ ] Sometimes

3 [ ] Often

4 [ ] All the Time

13. Do you feel very close to your mother? (120)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

14. Do you share your thoughts and feelings with your mother? (121)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

15. My parents ask me what I think before most family decisions affecting me are made. (122)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

16. How often do your parents tell you they’re proud of you for something you’ve done? (123)

1 [ ] Never or almost never

2 [ ] Sometimes

3 [ ] Often

4 [ ] All the Time

17. Do you share your thoughts and feelings with your father? (124)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

18. Do you enjoy spending time with your mother? (125)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

19. Do you enjoy spending time with your father? (126)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

20. If I had a personal problem, I could ask my mom or dad for help. (127)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

21. Do you feel very close to your father? (128)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

22. My parents give me lots of chances to do fun things with them. (129)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

23. My parents ask if I’ve gotten my homework done. (130)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

24. People in my family have serious arguments. (131)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

25. Would your parents know if you did not come home on time? (132)

4 [ ] NO!

3 [ ] no

2 [ ] yes

1 [ ] YES!

26. About how many adults (over 21) have you known personally who in the past year have: (92)

a. used marijuana, crack, cocaine, or other drugs?

1 [ ] None

2 [ ] One adult

3 [ ] Two adults

4 [ ] Three or four adults

5 [ ] Five or more adults

b. sold or dealt drugs?

1 [ ] None

2 [ ] One adult

3 [ ] Two adults

4 [ ] Three or four adults

5 [ ] Five or more adults

c. done other things that could get them in trouble with the police like stealing, selling stolen goods, mugging or assaulting others, etc.

1 [ ] None

2 [ ] One adult

3 [ ] Two adults

4 [ ] Three or four adults

5 [ ] Five or more adults

d. gotten drunk or high?

1 [ ] None

2 [ ] One adult

3 [ ] Two adults

4 [ ] Three or four adults

5 [ ] Five or more adults

Scoring

Subscale

Reliability

Range

Scoring

Poor Family Management

.87

1-4

Average items 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 23, 25

Family Conflict

.73

1-4

Average items 5, 7, 24

Parental Attitudes Favorable to Antisocial Behavior

.83

1-4

Average items 1d, 1e, 1f,

Attachment

.81

1-4

Average items 13, 14, 17, 21

Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement

.82

1-4

Average items: 15, 20, 22

Rewards for Prosocial Involvement

.80

1-4

Average items 12, 16, 18, 19

Parental Attitudes Favorable toward Drug Use

.86

1-4

Average items 1a, 1b, 1c

Family History of Antisocial Behavior (including Drug Use)

.87 (drug only: .82)

1-5

Average items 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 4, 26a, 26b, 26c, 26d (Drug only: 2a, 2b, 2c, 4, 26a, 26b, 26d).

Comparison with the CTC Normative Database.

Note: To obtain scores on the same metric as the CTC normative database, subtract 1 (from either each item, or from the means).

General Summary Scales

Scoring: averages of the above subscales

General Family Risk

.89

1-4

1) Reverse: Opportunities, Rewards, Attachment

2) Average: Opportunities-R, Rewards-R, Attachment-R, Poor Management, Conflict

Family Drug Risk

.87

1-5

Average: Parental Attitudes Favorable toward Drug Use; Family History of Drug Use

Protocol Name from Source:

Communities That Care Youth Survey

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adolescent

Participants:

Adolescents aged 12-18 years (grades 6-12)

Specific Instructions:

Items below are subscales from the Communities That Care [CTC] 2010 Youth Survey. Item numbers at the end in parentheses reflect the original item numbers in that survey for comparison. See the full CTC Survey in the reference list for comparison. The numbers to the left of the response option brackets are for scoring purposes, and they should NOT be included in the administered survey.

The numbers to the left of the response option brackets are for scoring purposes, and they should NOT be included in the administered survey.

Selection Rationale

The Communities That Care Youth Survey is in the public domain and is available at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) website. The survey reliably predicts current and prospective substance use, abuse and dependence, and related problem behaviors among adolescents. SAMHSA’s database of 300,000 youths from around the country enables investigators to derive nationally representative normative distributions for comparison with newly collected data.

Language

Dutch, English, French, Spanish, Available in other languages

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Substance use Family Risk Factor Questionnaire Assessment Score 3371929 CDE Browser
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel #3 (ERP 3) reviewed the measures in Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances, and Substance Abuse and Addiction domains.

Guidance from ERP 3 includes:

• Revised descriptions of the measure

Back-compatible: NA no changes to Data Dictionary

Previous version in Toolkit archive (link)

Source

Arthur, M. W., Briney, J. S., Hawkins, J. D., Abbott, R. D., Brooke-Weiss, B. L., & Catalano, R. F. (2007). Measuring risk and protection in communities using the Communities That Care Youth Survey. Evaluation and Program Planning, 30(2), 197-211.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2004). Communities That Care (CTC) Youth Survey. Retrieved November 3, 2015, from http://store.samhsa.gov/product/Communities-That-Care-Youth-Survey/CTC020

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2011). Communities That Care Normative Database (CTC NDB). Retrieved October 24, 2011, from https://www.pmrts.samhsa.gov/pmrts/CommunitiesCares.aspx

General References

http://www.communitiesthatcare.net/research-results/

Bailey, J. A., Hill, K. G., Meacham, M. C., Young, S. E., & Hawkins, J. D. (2011). Strategies for characterizing complex phenotypes and environments: General and specific family environmental predictors of young adult tobacco dependence, alcohol use disorder, and co‐occurring problems. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 118(2-3), 444-451.

Beyers, J. M., Toumbourou, J. W., Catalano, R. F., Arthur, M. W., & Hawkins, J. D. (2004). A cross‐national comparison of risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use: The United States and Australia. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35(1), 3-16.

Dryfoos, J. G. (1991). Adolescents at risk: A summation of work in the field: Programs and policies. Journal of Adolescent Health, 12(8), 630-637.

Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance‐abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 64-105.

Hawkins, J. D., Herrenkohl, T., Farrington, D. P., Brewer, D., Catalano, R. F., & Harachi, T. W. (1998). A review of predictors of youth violence. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 106-146). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hawkins, J. D., Hill, K. G., Guo, J., & Battin, S. R. (1998, June). Common predictors of substance abuse, mental health and behavior disorders: Implications for prevention. Paper presented at the National Institute of Mental Health Office of Behavioral and Social Science, NIH Workshop on Prevention of Comorbidity, Bethesda, MD.

Hemphill, S. A., Heerde, J. A., Herrenkohl, T. I., Patton, G. C., Toumbourou, J. W., & Catalano, R. F. (2011). Risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use in the United States and Australia: A longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(3), 312-320.

Lipsey, M. W., & Derzon, J. H. (1998). Predictors of violent or serious delinquency in adolescence and early adulthood: A synthesis of longitudinal research. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 86‐105). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (Eds.); Committee on Prevention of Mental Disorders, Institute of Medicine. (1994). Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for prevention intervention research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Pollard, J. A., Hawkins, J. D., & Arthur, M. W. (1999). Risk and protection: Are both necessary to understand diverse behavioral outcomes in adolescence? Social Work Research, 23(3), 145-158.

Protocol ID:

540301

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX540301_Adults_Gotten_Drunk_Or_High PX540301260400 About how many adults (over 21) have you known personally who in the past year have: gotten drunk or high? 4 N/A
PX540301_Adults_Who_Done_Other_Things PX540301260300 About how many adults (over 21) have you known personally who in the past year have: done other things that could get them in trouble with the police like stealing, selling stolen goods, mugging or assaulting others, etc. 4 N/A
PX540301_Adults_Who_Sold_Dealt_Drugs PX540301260200 About how many adults (over 21) have you known personally who in the past year have: sold or dealt drugs? 4 N/A
PX540301_Adults_Who_Used_Drugs PX540301260100 About how many adults (over 21) have you known personally who in the past year have: used marijuana, crack, cocaine, or other drugs? 4 N/A
PX540301_Ask_Mom_Dad_For_Help PX540301200000 If I had a personal problem, I could ask my mom or dad for help. 4 N/A
PX540301_Beer_Caught_By_Parents PX540301080000 If you drank some beer or wine or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin) without your parents' permission, would you be caught by your parents? 4 N/A
PX540301_Brothers_Sisters_Been_Suspended_Expelled PX540301020500 Have any of your brothers or sisters ever: been suspended or expelled from school? 4 N/A
PX540301_Brothers_Sisters_Ever_Drunk PX540301020100 Have any of your brothers or sisters ever: drunk beer, wine or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin)? 4 N/A
PX540301_Brothers_Sisters_Ever_Smoked_Cigarettes PX540301020300 Have any of your brothers or sisters ever: smoked cigarettes? 4 N/A
PX540301_Brothers_Sisters_Ever_Smoked_Marijuana PX540301020200 Have any of your brothers or sisters ever: smoked marijuana? 4 N/A
PX540301_Brothers_Sisters_Taken_Handgun_School PX540301020400 Have any of your brothers or sisters ever: taken a handgun to school? 4 N/A
PX540301_Carried_Handgun_Caught_By_Parents PX540301100000 If you carried a handgun without your parents' permission, would you be caught by your parents? 4 N/A
PX540301_Chances_For_Fun_With_Parents PX540301220000 My parents give me lots of chances to do fun things with them. 4 N/A
PX540301_Close_To_Your_Mother PX540301130000 Do you feel very close to your mother? 4 N/A
PX540301_Enjoy_Spending_Time_With_Father PX540301190000 Do you enjoy spending time with your father? 4 N/A
PX540301_Enjoy_Spending_Time_With_Mother PX540301180000 Do you enjoy spending time with your mother? 4 N/A
PX540301_Family_Argue_Same_Things PX540301070000 We argue about the same things in my family over and over. 4 N/A
PX540301_Family_Has_Rules_Alcohol_Drug PX540301090000 My family has clear rules about alcohol and drug use. 4 N/A
PX540301_Family_Member_Alcohol_Drug_Problem PX540301040000 Has anyone in your family ever had a severe alcohol or drug problem? 4 N/A
PX540301_Family_Often_Insult_Yell PX540301050000 People in my family often insult or yell at each other. 4 N/A
PX540301_Family_Rules_Are_Clear PX540301030000 The rules in my family are clear. 4 N/A
PX540301_Family_Serious_Arguments PX540301240000 People in my family have serious arguments. 4 N/A
PX540301_Feel_Very_Close_To_Father PX540301210000 Do you feel very close to your father? 4 N/A
PX540301_Frequency_Parents_Proud PX540301160000 How often do your parents tell you they're proud of you for something you've done? 4 N/A
PX540301_How_Wrong_Parents_Feel_Cigarettes PX540301010200 How wrong do your parents feel it would be for you to: smoke cigarettes? 4 N/A
PX540301_How_Wrong_Parents_Feel_Drink PX540301010100 How wrong do your parents feel it would be for you to: drink beer, wine or hard liquor (for example, vodka, whiskey, or gin) regularly (at least once or twice a month)? 4 N/A
PX540301_How_Wrong_Parents_Feel_Fight PX540301010600 How wrong do your parents feel it would be for you to: pick a fight with someone? 4 N/A
PX540301_How_Wrong_Parents_Feel_Graffit PX540301010500 How wrong do your parents feel it would be for you to: draw graffiti, or write things or draw pictures on buildings or other property (without the owner's permission)? 4 N/A
PX540301_How_Wrong_Parents_Feel_Marijuana PX540301010300 How wrong do your parents feel it would be for you to: smoke marijuana? 4 N/A
PX540301_How_Wrong_Parents_Feel_Steal PX540301010400 How wrong do your parents feel it would be for you to: steal something worth more than $5? 4 N/A
PX540301_Parents_Ask_Homework_Done PX540301230000 My parents ask if I've gotten my homework done. 4 N/A
PX540301_Parents_Know_Not_Home_Time PX540301250000 Would your parents know if you did not come home on time? 4 N/A
PX540301_Parents_Know_Where_I_Am PX540301060000 When I am not at home, one of my parents knows where I am and who I am with. 4 N/A
PX540301_Parents_Notice_Good_Job PX540301120000 My parents notice when I am doing a good job and let me know about it. 4 N/A
PX540301_Share_Thoughts_Feelings_With_Father PX540301170000 Do you share your thoughts and feelings with your father? 4 N/A
PX540301_Share_Thoughts_Feelings_With_Mother PX540301140000 Do you share your thoughts and feelings with your mother? 4 N/A
PX540301_Skipped_School_Caught_By_Parents PX540301110000 If you skipped school, would you be caught by your parents? 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Family Risk and Protective Factors

Release Date:

November 21, 2016

Definition

This measure assesses the level and prevalence of adolescents’ exposure to substance use risk and protective factors in the family environment.

Purpose

This measure can be used to identify the specific family-related elevated risk and depressed protective factors that can predict adolescent (and later life) substance use and abuse.

Keywords

Adolescent, Self-report, Poor Family Management, Family Conflict, Parental Attitudes Favorable to Antisocial Behavior, Attachment, Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement, Rewards for Prosocial Involvment, Parental Attitudes Favorable towards Drug Use, Family History of Antisocial Behavior, Communities That Care Youth Survey, Drug Abuse, Drug Use, Family, Family History of Drug Use, Family Management, Parental Attitudes, Prosocial Involvement, Protective Factors, Risk Factors, SAMHSA, Substance Abuse, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Substance Use, SAA, Substance Use-related Psychosocial Risk Factors