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Protocol - Exercise Dependence Scale

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Description:

The Exercise Dependence Scale is a 21-item self-administered scale that can be administered in individual and group settings and has been used with respondents 18 years and older. Participants indicate their responses to each of the 21 items in the blank space provided after each item. They indicate their responses on a Likert scale anchored at the extremes with never (1) and always (6). The Exercise Dependence Scale requires approximately 5 minutes to complete.

Protocol:

Exercise Dependence Scale-21

Instructions. Using the scale provided below, please complete the following questions as honestly as possible. The questions refer to current exercise beliefs and behaviors that have occurred in the past 3 months. Please place your answer in the blank space provided after each statement.

1 Never

2

3

4

5

6 Always

1. I exercise to avoid feeling irritable._____

2. I exercise despite recurring physical problems._____

3. I continually increase my exercise intensity to achieve the desired effects/benefits._____

4. I am unable to reduce how long I exercise._____

5. I would rather exercise than spend time with family/friends._____

6. I spend a lot of time exercising._____

7. I exercise longer than I intend._____

8. I exercise to avoid feeling anxious._____

9. I exercise when injured._____

10. I continually increase my exercise frequency to achieve the desired effects/benefits._____

11. I am unable to reduce how often I exercise._____

12. I think about exercise when I should be concentrating on school/work._____

13. I spend most of my free time exercising._____

14. I exercise longer than I expect._____

15. I exercise to avoid feeling tense._____

16. I exercise despite persistent physical problems._____

17. I continually increase my exercise duration to achieve the desired effects/benefits._____

18. I am unable to reduce how intense I exercise._____

19. I choose to exercise so that I can get out of spending time with family/friends._____

20. A great deal of my time is spent exercising.____

21. I exercise longer than I plan._____

Scoring:

The proposed scoring procedure for the Exercise Dependence Scale is computer based, which allows for immediate and accurate scoring. The computer scoring of the Exercise Dependence Scale is based on the SPSS (Statistic Package for the Social Sciences). A syntax file (see https://phenxtoolkit.org/collections/supplemental/1) has been developed by the authors that enables immediate feedback to the Exercise Dependence Scale responses once the items are entered into SPSS. The syntax enables:

  1. Computing a total and subscale mean scores for Exercise Dependence Scale-21. A higher score indicates more exercise-dependent symptoms.

  2. Categorizing participants into either at-risk for exercise dependent, nondependent-symptomatic, or nondependent-asymptomatic groups. The categorization into one of the three groups is generated by a scoring manual that consists of flowchart decision rules in which items or combinations or items determine if an individual would be classified in the dependent, symptomatic, or asymptomatic range on each of the 7 DSM IV criteria. Individuals who are classified into the dependent range on 3 or more of the DSM criteria are classified as exercise dependence. The dependent range is operationalized as indicating a score of 5 or 6 for that item. Individuals who scored in the 3 to 4 range are classified as symptomatic. These individuals may theoretically be considered at-risk for exercise dependence. Finally, individuals who score in the 1-2 range are classified as asymptomatic.

Protocol Name from Source:

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adult

Participants:

Adults, ages 18 years and older

Specific Instructions:

None

Selection Rationale

The Exercise Dependence Scale is a brief, valid, reliable and widely used scale that is consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for exercise dependence.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Exercise Dependency Questionnaire Assessment Score 4925815 CDE Browser
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

Hausenblas, H. A., & Downs, D.S. (2002). How much is too much? The development and validation of the Exercise Dependence Scale. Psychology and Health, 17(4), 287-404.

General References

Cook, B.J., & Hausenblas, H.A. (2011). Eating disorder-specific health-related quality of life and exercise in college females. Quality of Life Research, 55(8), 1129-1141.

Costa, S., Hausenblas, H. A., Oliva, P., Cuzzocrea, F., & Larcan, R. (2013). The role of age, gender, mood states and exercise frequency on exercise dependence. Journal of Behavior Addictions, 2(4), 216-223.

Protocol ID:

650201

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX650201_Exercise_Avoid_Feeling_Anxious PX650201080000 I exercise to avoid feeling anxious. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Avoid_Feeling_Irritable PX650201010000 I exercise to avoid feeling irritable. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Avoid_Feeling_Tense PX650201150000 I exercise to avoid feeling tense. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Despite_Persistent_Physical_Problems PX650201160000 I exercise despite persistent physical problems. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Despite_Recurring_Physical_Problems PX650201020000 I exercise despite recurring physical problems. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_ExcuseFrom_Social_Activity PX650201200000 A great deal of my time is spent exercising. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Increase_Duration_ForResults PX650201170000 I continually increase my exercise duration to achieve the desired effects/benefits. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Increase_Frequency_ForResults PX650201100000 I continually increase my exercise frequency to achieve the desired effects/benefits. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Increase_Intensity_ForResults PX650201030000 I continually increase my exercise intensity to achieve the desired effects/benefits. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_InsteadOf_Social_Activity PX650201190000 I choose to exercise so that I can get out of spending time with family/friends. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_LongerThan_Expected PX650201140000 I exercise longer than I expect. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_LongerThan_Intended PX650201070000 I exercise longer than I intend. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_LongerThan_Planned PX650201210000 I exercise longer than I plan. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_MajorityOf_Free_Time PX650201130000 I spend most of my free time exercising. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Over_Social_Activity PX650201050000 I would rather exercise than spend time with family/friends. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Thoughts_InsteadOf_School_Work PX650201120000 I think about exercise when I should be concentrating on school/work. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Time_Spent PX650201060000 I spend a lot of time exercising. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_UnableTo_Reduce_Frequency PX650201110000 I am unable to reduce how often I exercise. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_UnableTo_Reduce_Length PX650201040000 I am unable to reduce how long I exercise. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_Unable_Reduce_Intensity PX650201180000 I am unable to reduce how intense I exercise. 4 N/A
PX650201_Exercise_When_Injured PX650201090000 I exercise when injured. 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Exercise Dependence

Release Date:

August 7, 2015

Definition

A questionnaire to assess dependence on exercise.

Purpose

Exercise dependence, which occurs when physical activity develops into a compulsive behavior, may have negative physical and psychological effects.

Keywords

Exercise Dependence Scale, EDS, eating disorder, tolerance, withdrawal, intention effects, lack of control, time, reduction in other activities, continuance