Protocol - Emotional State - Adult

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The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule-Expanded Form (PANAS X) is a 60-item scale used to measure the respondent’s emotions during the past few weeks.

Specific Instructions:

The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule-Expanded Form (PANAS X) scale and scoring are available on the University of Iowa’s Department of Psychology website. The scale is copyrighted by Dr. David Watson and Dr. Lee Anna Clark. Permission to reproduce the instrument is granted for noncommercial applications only; any commercial use would require the express written permission of the copyright holders.

Dr. Watson and Dr. Clark are professors in the Department of Psychology at the University of Notre Dame.


The PANAS-X scale includes 60 items that are grouped into the following four subgroups and subscales: general dimension scales (negative affect, positive affect), basic negative emotion scales (fear, hostility, guilt, sadness), basic positive emotion scales (joviality, self-assurance, attentiveness), and other affective states (shyness, fatigue, serenity, surprise).

The respondent is asked to read several words and phrases which describe feelings and emotions and enter a number that corresponds to the value on a scale. The 5-item scale ranges from "very slightly or not at all," with a value of 1, to "extremely," with a value of 5.

Protocol Name from Source:

The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule-Expanded Form (PANAS‑X)


Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required


Equipment Needs


Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:



Ages 18 years and older

Selection Rationale

The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule-Expanded Form (PANAS-X) are well-known and commonly used psychometric measures. Internal consistency is high for both the positive and negative scales (Cronbach’s alpha is between 0.83 and 0.90).



Common Data Elements (CDE) Adult Emotional State Assessment Score 3163014 CDE Browser
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) Emotional state - adult proto 62923-8 LOINC
Derived Variables


Process and Review

Expert Review Panel 4 (ERP 4) reviewed the measures in the Neurology, Psychiatric, and Psychosocial domains.

Guidance from ERP 4 included the following:

· No changes


Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1999). The PANAS-X: Manual for the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule-Expanded Form. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa. http://www2.psychology.uiowa.edu/Faculty/Clark/PANAS-X.pdf

General References

Watson, D., & Naragon-Gainey, K. (2010). On the specificity of positive emotional dysfunction in psychopathology: Evidence from the mood and anxiety disorders and schizophrenia/schizotypy. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 839-848.

Protocol ID:


Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX180501_Active PX180501030000 active Variable Mapping
PX180501_Afraid PX180501100000 afraid N/A
PX180501_Alert PX180501380000 alert Variable Mapping
PX180501_Alone PX180501340000 alone N/A
PX180501_Amazed PX180501180000 amazed N/A
PX180501_Angry PX180501460000 angry Variable Mapping
PX180501_Angry_At_Self PX180501040000 angry at self N/A
PX180501_Ashamed PX180501470000 ashamed N/A
PX180501_Astonished PX180501360000 proud N/A
PX180501_Attentive PX180501090000 attentive Variable Mapping
PX180501_At_Ease PX180501510000 at ease N/A
PX180501_Bashful PX180501130000 bashful N/A
PX180501_Blameworthy PX180501240000 blameworthy N/A
PX180501_Blue PX180501540000 blue Variable Mapping
PX180501_Bold PX180501500000 bold Variable Mapping
PX180501_Calm PX180501060000 calm Variable Mapping
PX180501_Cheerful PX180501010000 cheerful Variable Mapping
PX180501_Concentrating PX180501560000 concentrating N/A
PX180501_Confident PX180501480000 confident Variable Mapping
PX180501_Daring PX180501210000 daring N/A
PX180501_Delighted PX180501450000 delighted N/A
PX180501_Determined PX180501280000 determined N/A
PX180501_Disgusted PX180501570000 disgusted N/A
PX180501_Disgusted_With_Self PX180501050000 disgusted with self N/A
PX180501_Dissatisfied_With_Self PX180501600000 Dissatisfied with self N/A
PX180501_Distressed PX180501200000 distressed N/A
PX180501_Downhearted PX180501120000 Downhearted N/A
PX180501_Drowsy PX180501590000 drowsy Variable Mapping
PX180501_Energetic PX180501520000 energetic Variable Mapping
PX180501_Enthusiastic PX180501080000 Enthusiastic N/A
PX180501_Excited PX180501270000 excited N/A
PX180501_Fearless PX180501530000 fearless N/A
PX180501_Frightened PX180501320000 frightened Variable Mapping
PX180501_Guilty PX180501070000 guilty Variable Mapping
PX180501_Happy PX180501260000 happy Variable Mapping
PX180501_Hostile PX180501310000 hostile N/A
PX180501_Inspired PX180501490000 inspired N/A
PX180501_Interested PX180501400000 interested N/A
PX180501_Irritable PX180501410000 irritable Variable Mapping
PX180501_Jittery PX180501390000 jittery Variable Mapping
PX180501_Joyful PX180501110000 joyful Variable Mapping
PX180501_Lively PX180501430000 lively Variable Mapping
PX180501_Loathing PX180501440000 loathing N/A
PX180501_Lonely PX180501190000 lonely Variable Mapping
PX180501_Nervous PX180501150000 nervous Variable Mapping
PX180501_Proud PX180501350000 proud N/A
PX180501_Relaxed PX180501370000 relaxed Variable Mapping
PX180501_Sad PX180501020000 sad Variable Mapping
PX180501_Scared PX180501550000 scared Variable Mapping
PX180501_Scornful PX180501330000 scornful N/A
PX180501_Shaky PX180501220000 shaky Variable Mapping
PX180501_Sheepish PX180501160000 sheepish N/A
PX180501_Shy PX180501580000 shy N/A
PX180501_Sleepy PX180501230000 sleepy N/A
PX180501_Sluggish PX180501170000 sluggish Variable Mapping
PX180501_Strong PX180501290000 strong Variable Mapping
PX180501_Surprised PX180501250000 surprised N/A
PX180501_Timid PX180501300000 timid Variable Mapping
PX180501_Tired PX180501140000 tired Variable Mapping
PX180501_Upset PX180501420000 upset Variable Mapping
Measure Name:

Emotional State

Release Date:

December 13, 2010


This measure assesses positive and negative aspects of a person’s mood.


The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) measures the two broadest dimensions of emotional state (positive and negative affect). PANAS also includes subscales used to measure more specific emotions within these broad groupings. Positive affect and negative affect have been associated with mental health problems such as depression and anxiety.


Mood, feelings, emotions, anxiety, depression, stress, proprietary