Protocol - Foot Pain

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An interviewer-administered, three-item questionnaire containing yes-or-no and Likert-style questions.

Specific Instructions:



1. On most days do you have pain, aching, or stiffness in either of your feet? (note: does not include ankle)

[ ] 0 No (End of questionnaire)

[ ] 1 Yes

2. Is the pain, aching, or stiffness in your right foot, left foot, or both feet?

[ ] 1 Right

[ ] 2 Left

[ ] 3 Both

[ ] 4 Not sure which foot

[ ] 8 N/A (e.g., amputee)

[ ] 9 Unknown

3. Is the pain aching or stiffness mild, moderate, or severe in your [Right/left] foot? (probe: if you had to choose one word, which one would it be?)

3a) Right foot

[ ] 0 none

[ ] 1 mild

[ ] 2 moderate

[ ] 3 severe

3b) Left foot

[ ] 0 none

[ ] 1 mild

[ ] 2 moderate

[ ] 3 severe

Protocol Name from Source:

Framingham Foot Assessment Clinical Tool


Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

The interviewer must be trained to conduct personal interviews with individuals from the general population. The interviewer must be trained and found to be competent (i.e., tested by an expert) at the completion of personal interviews. The interviewer should be trained to prompt respondents further if a "don't know" response is provided.

Equipment Needs
The PhenX Working Group acknowledges these questions can be administered in a computerized or noncomputerized format (i.e., paper-and-pencil instrument). Computer software is necessary to develop computer-assisted instruments. The interviewer will require a laptop computer/handheld computer to administer a computer-assisted questionnaire.
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Interviewer-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Senior, Pregnancy


60 and older

Selection Rationale

These items are validated and widely used in national surveys and clinical research protocols.



Common Data Elements (CDE) Framingham Foot Assessment Clinical Tool Assessment Scale 6356792 CDE Browser
Derived Variables


Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel has yet to review this measure.


Framingham Study, Phase II, Foot Assessment Clinical Tool, Questions 53-56

General References

Dufour, A. B., Broe, K. E., Nguyen, U. S., Gagnon, D. R., Hillstrom, H. J., Walker, A. H., . . . Hannan, M. T. (2009). Foot pain: Is current or past shoewear a factor? Arthritis & Rheumatology, 61(10), 1352-1358. doi:10.1002/art.24733

Menz, H. B., Dufour, A. B., Casey, V. A., Riskowski, J. L., McLean, R. R., Katz, P., & Hannan, M. T. (2013). Foot pain and mobility limitations in older adults: The Framingham Foot Study. Journal of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 68(10), 1281-1285.

Riskowski, J. L., Dufour, A. B., Hagedorn, T. J., Hillstrom, H. J., Casey, V. A., & Hannan, M. T. (2013). Associations of foot posture and function to lower extremity pain: Results from a population-based foot study. Arthritis Care and Research, 65(11), 1804-1812. doi:10.1002/acr.22049

Protocol ID:


Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
Measure Name:

Foot Pain

Release Date:



A questionnaire assessing foot pain.


Foot pain can impair an individual by limiting their mobility and participation in daily activities.


Feet, stiffness, aching, pain, neuropathy, geriatrics, gerontology, aging