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Protocol - Parenting Style - Child

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Description:

The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire is a 42-item questionnaire that measures five dimensions of parenting that can affect the development of children. Using a Likert scale of Never to Always, the answers can be scored to assess parental involvement, positive parenting, monitoring/supervision, discipline, and corporal punishment.

Specific Instructions:

The University of New Orleans provides the tests and measures at: http://fs.uno.edu/pfrick/APQ.html. Credit must be given to the developers.

Dr. Paul Frick requests that copies of any publications using the APQ are sent to him at pfrick@uno.edu.

The WG acknowledges that there are also versions (parent report and child report) developed for use in telephone interviews.

The PhenX working group suggests that it would be helpful to record the age of the child and that If administered as an interview, the interviewer will probably want to create some kind of visual aid that the child can use to point to their response for each item because a child without enough reading comprehension to fill out the form on their own might have difficulty keeping the Likert scale in their head.

Protocol:

Instructions: The following are a number of statements about your family. Please rate each item as to how often it TYPICALLY occurs in your home. The possible answers are Never (1), Almost Never (2), Sometimes (3), Often (4), Always (5). If your dad or mom is not currently living at home with you, then skip the questions about that person.

 

Never

Almost Never

Sometimes

Often

Always

  1. You have a friendly talk with your mom.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

   A. How about your dad?

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents tell you that you are doing a good job.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents threaten to punish you and then do not do it.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your mom helps with some of your special activities (such as sports, boy/girl scouts, church youth groups).

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

   A. How about your dad?

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents reward or give something extra to you for behaving well.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You fail to leave a note or let your parents know where you are going.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You play games or do other fun things with your mom.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

   A. How about your dad?

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You talk your parents out of punishing you after you have done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your mom asks you about your day in school.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

   A. How about your dad?

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You stay out in the evening past the time you are supposed to be home.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your mom helps you with your homework.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

   A. How about your dad?

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents give up trying to get you to obey them because it’s too much trouble.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents compliment you when you have done something well.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your mom asks you what your plans are for the coming day.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

   A. How about your dad?

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your mom drives you to a special activity.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

   A. How about your dad?

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents praise you for behaving well.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents do not know the friends you are with.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents hug and kiss you when you have done something well.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You go out without a set time to be home.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your mom talks to you about your friends.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

   A. How about your dad?

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You go out after dark without an adult with you.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents let you out of a punishment early (like lift restrictions earlier than they originally said.)

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You help plan family activities.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents get so busy that they forget where you are and what you are doing.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents do not punish you when you have done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your mom goes to a meeting at school, like a PTA meeting or parent/teacher conference.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

   A. How about your dad?

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents tell you that they like it when you help out around the house.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You stay out later than you are supposed to and your parents don’t know it.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents leave the house and don’t tell you where they are going.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You come home from school more than an hour past the time your parents expect you to be home.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. The punishment your parents give depends on their mood.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You are at home without an adult being with you.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents spank you with their hand when you have done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents ignore you when you are misbehaving.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents slap you when you have done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents take away a privilege or money from you as a punishment.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents send you to your room as punishment.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents hit you with a belt, switch, or other object when you have done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents yell or scream at you when you have done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents calmly explain to you why your behavior was wrong when you misbehave.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents use time out (make you sit or stand in a corner) as a punishment.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents give you extra chores as a punishment.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

 Scoring for Child Form:

The items on the child form are categorized into five subscales that are reflective of the parent subscales:

  • Involvement: 1, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 20, 23, 26 (there are two parts to each of these questions—one for mother involvement and one for father involvement)
  • Positive Parenting: 2, 5, 13, 16, 18, 27
  • Poor Monitoring/Supervision: 6, 10, 17, 19, 21, 24, 28, 29, 30, 32
  • Inconsistent Discipline: 3, 8, 12, 22, 25, 31
  • Corporal Punishment: 33, 35, 39
  • No reverse coding necessary.
  • Sum all items in the scale to obtain a total scale score (you may subtract this score by the number of items in the subscale so that the score range begins at zero).
  • Other Discipline Practices is not a scale, but provides information on an item by item basis. Numbers for these items are: 34, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42

 

Protocol Name from Source:

Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) Child Form

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Child, Adolescent

Participants:

Children ages 6-18 years

Selection Rationale

The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire was selected because the scale has been used in multiple research articles looking at parenting behaviors. The protocol is a validated and highly utilized scale. The PhenX working group recommends that validated observational methods should be used when possible (especially for very young children) but recognize that such methods are time consuming, costly, and logistically difficult, so offer this validated questionnaire to provide some measure of caregiving quality.

Language

Chinese, Dutch, English, German, Norwegian, Spanish

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Pediatric Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) Child Form Assessment Scale 7051603 CDE Browser
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

Not applicable

Source

Shelton KK, Frick, PJ & Wootton J. (1996.). Assessment of Parenting Practices of Families of Elementary School-Age Children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25 (3), 317-329.

General References

Gross, T. J., Fleming, C. B., Alex Mason, W., & Haggerty, K. P. (2017). Alabama Parenting Questionnaire–9: Longitudinal Measurement Invariance Across Parents and Youth During the Transition to High School. Assessment, 24(5), 646–659.

Protocol ID:

300801

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable Name Variable IDVariable DescriptiondbGaP Mapping
Pediatric Development
Measure Name:

Parenting Style

Release Date:

December 11, 2019

Definition

The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire is a 42-item questionnaire that measures five dimensions of parenting that can affect the development of children.

Purpose

How parents communicate and interact with their children can impact the child’s development.

Keywords

age, childcare, parenting, parenting styles, parental involvement, punishment, Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ), Pediatric Development