Protocol - Delayed Reward Discounting (Monetary-Choice Questionnaire)
Related Protocols:
- Decision Making (Iowa Gambling Task) - Adult
- Decision Making (Iowa Gambling Task) - Child
- Disinhibiting Behaviors - Impulsivity - Adolescent and Adult
- Disinhibiting Behaviors - Impulsivity - Child
- Laboratory Test of Risk Taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task)
Essential Protocols:
Description:
The Monetary-Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) is a 27-item, self-administered questionnaire. For each item, the participant chooses between a smaller, immediate monetary reward and a larger, delayed monetary reward. The protocol is scored by calculating where the respondent’s answers place him or her amid reference discounting curves, with placement amid steeper curves indicates higher levels of impulsivity. For more information about the MCQ, please refer to www.cognitiveatlas.org/task/id/tsk_4a57abb949e98 |Cognitive Atlas Interpretation.
Protocol:
Monetary-Choice Questionnaire
For each of the next 27 choices, please indicate which reward you would prefer: the smaller reward today, or the larger reward in the specified number of days.
1. Would you prefer $54 today, or $55 in 117 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
2. Would you prefer $55 today, or $75 in 61 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
3. Would you prefer $19 today, or $25 in 53 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
4. Would you prefer $31 today, or $85 in 7 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
5. Would you prefer $14 today, or $25 in 19 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
6. Would you prefer $47 today, or $50 in 160 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
7. Would you prefer $15 today, or $35 in 13 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
8. Would you prefer $25 today, or $60 in 14 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
9. Would you prefer $78 today, or $80 in 162 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
10. Would you prefer $40 today, or $55 in 62 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
11. Would you prefer $11 today, or $30 in 7 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
12. Would you prefer $67 today, or $75 in 119 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
13. Would you prefer $34 today, or $35 in 186 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
14. Would you prefer $27 today, or $50 in 21 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
15. Would you prefer $69 today, or $85 in 91 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
16. Would you prefer $49 today, or $60 in 89 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
17. Would you prefer $80 today, or $85 in 157 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
18. Would you prefer $24 today, or $35 in 29 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
19. Would you prefer $33 today, or $80 in 14 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
20. Would you prefer $28 today, or $30 in 179 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
21. Would you prefer $34 today, or $50 in 30 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
22. Would you prefer $25 today, or $30 in 80 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
23. Would you prefer $41 today, or $75 in 20 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
24. Would you prefer $54 today, or $60 in 111 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
25. Would you prefer $54 today, or $80 in 30 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
26. Would you prefer $22 today, or $25 in 136 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
27. Would you prefer $20 today, or $55 in 7 days?
[ ] smaller reward today
[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days
Scoring
A participant’s discounting curve may be calculated according to the following function:
V = A/(1+kD)
V is the present value of the delayed reward A at delay D, and k is the rate of discounting; k typically falls between 0.0 and 0.5, with smaller values indicating a lack of discounting and preference for delayed rewards and higher values indicating strong discounting and a preference for immediate rewards. Thus higher values of k are indicative of high levels of impulsivity.
There are two ways of scoring the Monetary-Choice Questionnaire. The first involves hand scoring to get an estimate of k following the guidelines given in Kirby (2000). The second involves fitting a logistic regression function to individual responses following procedures described in Wileyto et al. (2004).
Estimating Discounting Rate
The following table lists the calculated k values (the degree of discounting) at indifference for each question (i.e., when the subjective value of the immediate and delayed rewards are equivalent).
Question | k at indifference |
13 | .00016 |
1 | .00016 |
9 | .00016 |
20 | .00040 |
6 | .00040 |
17 | .00040 |
26 | .0010 |
24 | .0010 |
12 | .0010 |
22 | .0025 |
16 | .0025 |
15 | .0025 |
3 | .0060 |
10 | .0060 |
2 | .0060 |
18 | .016 |
21 | .016 |
25 | .016 |
5 | .041 |
14 | .041 |
23 | .041 |
7 | .10 |
8 | .10 |
19 | .10 |
11 | .25 |
27 | .25 |
4 | .25 |
An estimate of the respondent’s discounting rate can be calculated as the geometric mean (to avoid underweighting) of the k at indifference between the two questions that reflect when the respondent changes between choosing the delayed reward versus the immediate reward. In cases where the respondent’s change between preferring the delayed versus the immediate reward is not consistent, the two questions that are most proportional to their responses are chosen. If the participant always chooses the immediate reward or the delayed reward, the estimation of k is equal to one of the endpoints (0.25 or 0.00016).
Protocol Name from Source:
Monetary-Choice Questionnaire (MCQ)
Availability:
Personnel and Training Required
None
Equipment Needs
None
Requirements
Requirement Category | Required |
---|---|
Major equipment | No |
Specialized training | No |
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection | No |
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual | No |
Mode of Administration
Self-administered questionnaire
Life Stage:
Adolescent, Adult
Participants:
Adults and adolescents aged 13 years or older
Specific Instructions:
There is considerable evidence that the use of hypothetical and the use of real awards in delayed discounting produce very similar results (Lawyer et al., 2011). The estimate of the subject’s discounting constant “k” provided by the Monetary-Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) generally has correlated well with that obtained by a more comprehensive set of computerized intertemporal reward choices (Epstein et al., 2003). However, this set of questions has been shown to result in a “ceiling effect” of severe discounting that fails to distinguish between very impulsive individuals, such that additional questions may need to be added to discriminate them (Towe et al., 2015).
Selection Rationale
Delayed Reward Discounting has been shown to be moderately associated (d ~ .4-.6) with a broad range of addictive behaviors and can predict initiation of substance use (MacKillop et al., 2011; Audrain-McGovern et al., 2009). The Monetary Choice Questionnaire has been shown to be temporally stable, has been used with adolescents, and is highly correlated (r = 0.82) with computer-based experimental methods.
Language
English
Standards
Standard | Name | ID | Source |
---|---|---|---|
Common Data Elements (CDE) | Neurobehavioral Delayed Reward Discounting Assessment Score | 3346937 | CDE Browser |
Derived Variables
None
Process and Review
The Expert Review Panel #3 (ERP 3) reviewed the measures in Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances, and Substance Abuse and Addiction domains.
Guidance from ERP 3 includes:
• Revised descriptions of the measure
Back-compatible: NA no changes to Data Dictionary
Previous version in Toolkit archive (link)
Source
Kirby, K. N., Petry, N. M., & Bickel, W. K. (1999). Heroin addicts have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than non-drug-using controls. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 78-87.
General References
Audrain-McGovern, J., Rodriguez, D., Epstein, L. H., Cuevas, J., Rodgers, K., & Wileyto, E. P. (2009). Does delay discounting play an etiological role in smoking or is it a consequence of smoking? Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 103(3), 99-106.
deWit, H. (2008). Impulsivity as a determinant and consequence of drug use: A review of underlying processes. Addiction Biology, 14, 22-31.
Epstein, L. H., Richards, J. B., Lerman, C., Saad, F. G., Paluch, R. A., & Roemmich, J. N. (2003). Comparison between two measures of delay discounting in smokers. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 11, 131-138.
Fernie, G., Cole, J. C., Goudie, A. J., & Field, M. (2010). Risk-taking but not response inhibition or delay discounting predict alcohol consumption in social drinkers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 112(12), 54-61.
Kirby, K. N. (2000). Instructions for inferring discount rates from choices between immediate and delayed rewards. Unpublished manuscript.
Kirby, K. N. (2009). One-year temporal stability of delay-discount rates. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16(3), 457-462.
Lawyer, S. R., Schoepflin, F., Green, R., & Jenks, C. (2011). Discounting of hypothetical and potentially real outcomes in nicotine-dependent and non-dependent samples. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 19(4), 263-274.
MacKillop, J., Amlung, M. T., Few, L. R., Ray, L. A., Sweet, L. H., & Munafo, M. R. (2011). Delayed reward discounting and addictive behavior: A meta-analysis. Psychopharmacology, 216(3), 305-321.
Towe, S. L., Hobkirk, A. L., Ye, D. G., & Meade, C. S. (2015). Adaptation of the Monetary Choice Questionnaire to accommodate extreme monetary discounting in cocaine users. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29(4), 10481055.
White, S. F., Clanton, R., Brislin, S. J., Meffert, H., Hwang, S, Sinclaire, S., & Blair, R. J. (2014). Reward: Empirical contribution. Temporal discounting and conduct disorder in adolescents. Journal of Personality Disorders, 28(1), 5-18.
Wileyto, E. P., Audrain-McGovern, J., Epstein, L. H. & Lerman, C. (2004). Using logistic regression to estimate delay-discounting functions. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(1), 41-51.
Protocol ID:
530301
Variables:
Export VariablesVariable Name | Variable ID | Variable Description | Version | dbGaP Mapping |
---|---|---|---|---|
PX530301_11_Or_30_MCQ | PX530301110000 | Would you prefer $11 today, or $30 in 7 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_14_Or_25_MCQ | PX530301050000 | Would you prefer $14 today, or $25 in 19 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_15_Or_35_MCQ | PX530301070000 | Would you prefer $15 today, or $35 in 13 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_19_Or_25_MCQ | PX530301030000 | Would you prefer $19 today, or $25 in 53 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_20_Or_55_MCQ | PX530301270000 | Would you prefer $20 today, or $55 in 7 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_22_Or_25_MCQ | PX530301260000 | Would you prefer $22 today, or $25 in 136 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_24_Or_35_MCQ | PX530301180000 | Would you prefer $24 today, or $35 in 29 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_25_Or_30_MCQ | PX530301220000 | Would you prefer $25 today, or $30 in 80 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_25_Or_60_MCQ | PX530301080000 | Would you prefer $25 today, or $60 in 14 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_27_Or_50_MCQ | PX530301140000 | Would you prefer $27 today, or $50 in 21 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_28_Or_30_MCQ | PX530301200000 | Would you prefer $28 today, or $30 in 179 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_31_Or_85_MCQ | PX530301040000 | Would you prefer $31 today, or $85 in 7 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_33_Or_80_MCQ | PX530301190000 | Would you prefer $33 today, or $80 in 14 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_34_Or_35_MCQ | PX530301130000 | Would you prefer $34 today, or $35 in 186 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_34_Or_50_MCQ | PX530301210000 | Would you prefer $34 today, or $50 in 30 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_40_Or_55_MCQ | PX530301100000 | Would you prefer $40 today, or $55 in 62 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_41_Or_75_MCQ | PX530301230000 | Would you prefer $41 today, or $75 in 20 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_47_Or_50_MCQ | PX530301060000 | Would you prefer $47 today, or $50 in 160 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_49_Or_60_MCQ | PX530301160000 | Would you prefer $49 today, or $60 in 89 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_54_Or_55_MCQ | PX530301010000 | Would you prefer $54 today, or $55 in 117 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_54_Or_60_MCQ | PX530301240000 | Would you prefer $54 today, or $60 in 111 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_54_Or_80_MCQ | PX530301250000 | Would you prefer $54 today, or $80 in 30 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_55_Or_75_MCQ | PX530301020000 | Would you prefer $55 today, or $75 in 61 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_67_Or_75_MCQ | PX530301120000 | Would you prefer $67 today, or $75 in 119 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_69_Or_85_MCQ | PX530301150000 | Would you prefer $69 today, or $85 in 91 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_78_Or_80_MCQ | PX530301090000 | Would you prefer $78 today, or $80 in 162 days? | 4 | N/A |
PX530301_80_Or_85_MCQ | PX530301170000 | Would you prefer $80 today, or $85 in 157 days? | 4 | N/A |
Measure Name:
Delayed Reward Discounting (Monetary Choice Questionnaire)
Release Date:
November 21, 2016
Definition
This measure assesses whether the participant prefers smaller immediate rewards over delayed larger rewards.
Purpose
This measure captures devaluation of rewards as a function of delay. This is a decision-making dimension of impulsivity and may predict initiation of substance use and is characteristic of childhood externalizing disorders. When compared with the general population, adolescents with conduct disorder, drug users, and drug abusers show greater preference for small but immediate rewards and more readily discount a larger but long-term reward. Thus, substance users may prefer the immediate euphoria of substance use over the longer-term benefits of abstinence (i.e., maintaining employment, relationships, and physical health) (Kirby et al., 1999).
Keywords
Discounting of delayed rewards, drug abuse, drug use, impulsivity, inter-temporal choice, substance abuse, substance use and addiction, SAA, Substance Use-related Neurobehavioral and Cognitive Risk Factors, temporal discounting