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Protocol - Delayed Reward Discounting (Monetary-Choice Questionnaire)

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Description:

The Monetary-Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) is a 27-item, self-administered questionnaire. For each item, the participant chooses between a smaller, immediate monetary reward and a larger, delayed monetary reward. The protocol is scored by calculating where the respondent’s answers place him or her amid reference discounting curves, with placement amid steeper curves indicates higher levels of impulsivity. For more information about the MCQ, please refer to www.cognitiveatlas.org/task/id/tsk_4a57abb949e98 |Cognitive Atlas Interpretation.

Protocol:

Monetary-Choice Questionnaire

For each of the next 27 choices, please indicate which reward you would prefer: the smaller reward today, or the larger reward in the specified number of days.

1. Would you prefer $54 today, or $55 in 117 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

2. Would you prefer $55 today, or $75 in 61 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

3. Would you prefer $19 today, or $25 in 53 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

4. Would you prefer $31 today, or $85 in 7 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

5. Would you prefer $14 today, or $25 in 19 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

6. Would you prefer $47 today, or $50 in 160 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

7. Would you prefer $15 today, or $35 in 13 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

8. Would you prefer $25 today, or $60 in 14 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

9. Would you prefer $78 today, or $80 in 162 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

10. Would you prefer $40 today, or $55 in 62 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

11. Would you prefer $11 today, or $30 in 7 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

12. Would you prefer $67 today, or $75 in 119 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

13. Would you prefer $34 today, or $35 in 186 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

14. Would you prefer $27 today, or $50 in 21 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

15. Would you prefer $69 today, or $85 in 91 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

16. Would you prefer $49 today, or $60 in 89 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

17. Would you prefer $80 today, or $85 in 157 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

18. Would you prefer $24 today, or $35 in 29 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

19. Would you prefer $33 today, or $80 in 14 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

20. Would you prefer $28 today, or $30 in 179 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

21. Would you prefer $34 today, or $50 in 30 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

22. Would you prefer $25 today, or $30 in 80 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

23. Would you prefer $41 today, or $75 in 20 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

24. Would you prefer $54 today, or $60 in 111 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

25. Would you prefer $54 today, or $80 in 30 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

26. Would you prefer $22 today, or $25 in 136 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

27. Would you prefer $20 today, or $55 in 7 days?

[ ] smaller reward today

[ ] larger reward in the specified number of days

Scoring

A participant’s discounting curve may be calculated according to the following function:

V = A/(1+kD)

V is the present value of the delayed reward A at delay D, and k is the rate of discounting; k typically falls between 0.0 and 0.5, with smaller values indicating a lack of discounting and preference for delayed rewards and higher values indicating strong discounting and a preference for immediate rewards. Thus higher values of k are indicative of high levels of impulsivity.

There are two ways of scoring the Monetary-Choice Questionnaire. The first involves hand scoring to get an estimate of k following the guidelines given in Kirby (2000). The second involves fitting a logistic regression function to individual responses following procedures described in Wileyto et al. (2004).

Estimating Discounting Rate

The following table lists the calculated k values (the degree of discounting) at indifference for each question (i.e., when the subjective value of the immediate and delayed rewards are equivalent).

Question

k at indifference

13

.00016

1

.00016

9

.00016

20

.00040

6

.00040

17

.00040

26

.0010

24

.0010

12

.0010

22

.0025

16

.0025

15

.0025

3

.0060

10

.0060

2

.0060

18

.016

21

.016

25

.016

5

.041

14

.041

23

.041

7

.10

8

.10

19

.10

11

.25

27

.25

4

.25

An estimate of the respondent’s discounting rate can be calculated as the geometric mean (to avoid underweighting) of the k at indifference between the two questions that reflect when the respondent changes between choosing the delayed reward versus the immediate reward. In cases where the respondent’s change between preferring the delayed versus the immediate reward is not consistent, the two questions that are most proportional to their responses are chosen. If the participant always chooses the immediate reward or the delayed reward, the estimation of k is equal to one of the endpoints (0.25 or 0.00016).

Protocol Name from Source:

Monetary-Choice Questionnaire (MCQ)

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adolescent, Adult

Participants:

Adults and adolescents aged 13 years or older

Specific Instructions:

There is considerable evidence that the use of hypothetical and the use of real awards in delayed discounting produce very similar results (Lawyer et al., 2011). The estimate of the subject’s discounting constant “k” provided by the Monetary-Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) generally has correlated well with that obtained by a more comprehensive set of computerized intertemporal reward choices (Epstein et al., 2003). However, this set of questions has been shown to result in a “ceiling effect” of severe discounting that fails to distinguish between very impulsive individuals, such that additional questions may need to be added to discriminate them (Towe et al., 2015).

Selection Rationale

Delayed Reward Discounting has been shown to be moderately associated (d ~ .4-.6) with a broad range of addictive behaviors and can predict initiation of substance use (MacKillop et al., 2011; Audrain-McGovern et al., 2009). The Monetary Choice Questionnaire has been shown to be temporally stable, has been used with adolescents, and is highly correlated (r = 0.82) with computer-based experimental methods.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Neurobehavioral Delayed Reward Discounting Assessment Score 3346937 CDE Browser
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel #3 (ERP 3) reviewed the measures in Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances, and Substance Abuse and Addiction domains.

Guidance from ERP 3 includes:

• Revised descriptions of the measure

Back-compatible: NA no changes to Data Dictionary

Previous version in Toolkit archive (link)

Source

Kirby, K. N., Petry, N. M., & Bickel, W. K. (1999). Heroin addicts have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than non-drug-using controls. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 78-87.

General References

Audrain-McGovern, J., Rodriguez, D., Epstein, L. H., Cuevas, J., Rodgers, K., & Wileyto, E. P. (2009). Does delay discounting play an etiological role in smoking or is it a consequence of smoking? Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 103(3), 99-106.

deWit, H. (2008). Impulsivity as a determinant and consequence of drug use: A review of underlying processes. Addiction Biology, 14, 22-31.

Epstein, L. H., Richards, J. B., Lerman, C., Saad, F. G., Paluch, R. A., & Roemmich, J. N. (2003). Comparison between two measures of delay discounting in smokers. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 11, 131-138.

Fernie, G., Cole, J. C., Goudie, A. J., & Field, M. (2010). Risk-taking but not response inhibition or delay discounting predict alcohol consumption in social drinkers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 112(12), 54-61.

Kirby, K. N. (2000). Instructions for inferring discount rates from choices between immediate and delayed rewards. Unpublished manuscript.

Kirby, K. N. (2009). One-year temporal stability of delay-discount rates. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16(3), 457-462.

Lawyer, S. R., Schoepflin, F., Green, R., & Jenks, C. (2011). Discounting of hypothetical and potentially real outcomes in nicotine-dependent and non-dependent samples. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 19(4), 263-274.

MacKillop, J., Amlung, M. T., Few, L. R., Ray, L. A., Sweet, L. H., & Munafo, M. R. (2011). Delayed reward discounting and addictive behavior: A meta-analysis. Psychopharmacology, 216(3), 305-321.

Towe, S. L., Hobkirk, A. L., Ye, D. G., & Meade, C. S. (2015). Adaptation of the Monetary Choice Questionnaire to accommodate extreme monetary discounting in cocaine users. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29(4), 10481055.

White, S. F., Clanton, R., Brislin, S. J., Meffert, H., Hwang, S, Sinclaire, S., & Blair, R. J. (2014). Reward: Empirical contribution. Temporal discounting and conduct disorder in adolescents. Journal of Personality Disorders, 28(1), 5-18.

Wileyto, E. P., Audrain-McGovern, J., Epstein, L. H. & Lerman, C. (2004). Using logistic regression to estimate delay-discounting functions. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(1), 41-51.

Protocol ID:

530301

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX530301_11_Or_30_MCQ PX530301110000 Would you prefer $11 today, or $30 in 7 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_14_Or_25_MCQ PX530301050000 Would you prefer $14 today, or $25 in 19 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_15_Or_35_MCQ PX530301070000 Would you prefer $15 today, or $35 in 13 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_19_Or_25_MCQ PX530301030000 Would you prefer $19 today, or $25 in 53 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_20_Or_55_MCQ PX530301270000 Would you prefer $20 today, or $55 in 7 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_22_Or_25_MCQ PX530301260000 Would you prefer $22 today, or $25 in 136 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_24_Or_35_MCQ PX530301180000 Would you prefer $24 today, or $35 in 29 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_25_Or_30_MCQ PX530301220000 Would you prefer $25 today, or $30 in 80 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_25_Or_60_MCQ PX530301080000 Would you prefer $25 today, or $60 in 14 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_27_Or_50_MCQ PX530301140000 Would you prefer $27 today, or $50 in 21 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_28_Or_30_MCQ PX530301200000 Would you prefer $28 today, or $30 in 179 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_31_Or_85_MCQ PX530301040000 Would you prefer $31 today, or $85 in 7 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_33_Or_80_MCQ PX530301190000 Would you prefer $33 today, or $80 in 14 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_34_Or_35_MCQ PX530301130000 Would you prefer $34 today, or $35 in 186 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_34_Or_50_MCQ PX530301210000 Would you prefer $34 today, or $50 in 30 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_40_Or_55_MCQ PX530301100000 Would you prefer $40 today, or $55 in 62 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_41_Or_75_MCQ PX530301230000 Would you prefer $41 today, or $75 in 20 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_47_Or_50_MCQ PX530301060000 Would you prefer $47 today, or $50 in 160 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_49_Or_60_MCQ PX530301160000 Would you prefer $49 today, or $60 in 89 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_54_Or_55_MCQ PX530301010000 Would you prefer $54 today, or $55 in 117 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_54_Or_60_MCQ PX530301240000 Would you prefer $54 today, or $60 in 111 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_54_Or_80_MCQ PX530301250000 Would you prefer $54 today, or $80 in 30 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_55_Or_75_MCQ PX530301020000 Would you prefer $55 today, or $75 in 61 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_67_Or_75_MCQ PX530301120000 Would you prefer $67 today, or $75 in 119 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_69_Or_85_MCQ PX530301150000 Would you prefer $69 today, or $85 in 91 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_78_Or_80_MCQ PX530301090000 Would you prefer $78 today, or $80 in 162 days? 4 N/A
PX530301_80_Or_85_MCQ PX530301170000 Would you prefer $80 today, or $85 in 157 days? 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Delayed Reward Discounting (Monetary Choice Questionnaire)

Release Date:

November 21, 2016

Definition

This measure assesses whether the participant prefers smaller immediate rewards over delayed larger rewards.

Purpose

This measure captures devaluation of rewards as a function of delay. This is a decision-making dimension of impulsivity and may predict initiation of substance use and is characteristic of childhood externalizing disorders. When compared with the general population, adolescents with conduct disorder, drug users, and drug abusers show greater preference for small but immediate rewards and more readily discount a larger but long-term reward. Thus, substance users may prefer the immediate euphoria of substance use over the longer-term benefits of abstinence (i.e., maintaining employment, relationships, and physical health) (Kirby et al., 1999).

Keywords

Discounting of delayed rewards, drug abuse, drug use, impulsivity, inter-temporal choice, substance abuse, substance use and addiction, SAA, Substance Use-related Neurobehavioral and Cognitive Risk Factors, temporal discounting