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Protocol - Peer/Partner Substance Use and Tolerance of Substance Use

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Description:

This protocol includes two self-administered subscales from the 2015 Monitoring the Future (MTF) project survey. The Friends’ Use of Substances subscale includes questions taken from form 1, Part B, item 106 of the 12th-grade survey. The Friends’ Attitudes About Your Use subscale includes questions taken from form 6, Part D, item 18 of the 12th-grade survey.

Specific Instructions:

Although the Monitoring the Future (MTF) questionnaire was created to assess the participant’s perception of peer use and peer tolerance of use, the Working Group (WG) suggests that the referent can be changed in the Friends’ Attitudes About Your Use section to assess the participant’s perception of spouse/romantic partner tolerance of use.

The WG notes that investigators can opt to collapse items for illicit drug use (e.g., drugs other than alcohol) post-data collection to be more parsimonious with their analyses. Alternatively, investigators can retain individual drug use specificity items as illicit drug use may vary from year to year or by geographic region(s) dependent on demographics, subpopulation, and/or cultural shifts as well as scientific objectives (e.g., a study on prescription drug use would want to single out specific drug[s]).

Protocol:

Monitoring the Future Questionnaire

Friends’ Use of Substances (Form 1, Part B, Item 106)

1. How many of your friends would you estimate . . .

a. Smoke cigarettes?

1 [ ] None

2 [ ] A Few

3 [ ] Some

4 [ ] Most

5 [ ] All

b. Smoke marijuana (pot, weed) or hashish?

1 [ ] None

2 [ ] A Few

3 [ ] Some

4 [ ] Most

5 [ ] All

c. Take “Crack” cocaine?

1 [ ] None

2 [ ] A Few

3 [ ] Some

4 [ ] Most

5 [ ] All

d. Take cocaine powder?

1 [ ] None

2 [ ] A Few

3 [ ] Some

4 [ ] Most

5 [ ] All

e. Drink alcoholic beverages (liquor, beer, wine)?

1 [ ] None

2 [ ] A Few

3 [ ] Some

4 [ ] Most

5 [ ] All

g. Get drunk at least once a week?

1 [ ] None

2 [ ] A Few

3 [ ] Some

4 [ ] Most

5 [ ] All

h. Use an e-cigarette, e-pen, etc.?

1 [ ] None

2 [ ] A Few

3 [ ] Some

4 [ ] Most

5 [ ] All

Friends’ Attitudes About Your Use (Form 6, Part D, Item 18)

2. How do you think your CLOSE FRIENDS feel (or would feel) about YOU doing each of the following things? (Mark one circle for each line.)

a. Smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day

1 [ ] Not Disapprove

2 [ ] Disapprove

3 [ ] Strongly Disapprove

b. Smoking cigarettes every day

1 [ ] Not Disapprove

2 [ ] Disapprove

3 [ ] Strongly Disapprove

c. Using smokeless tobacco occasionally

1 [ ] Not Disapprove

2 [ ] Disapprove

3 [ ] Strongly Disapprove

d. Using smokeless tobacco several times per day

1 [ ] Not Disapprove

2 [ ] Disapprove

3 [ ] Strongly Disapprove

e. Trying marijuana once or twice

1 [ ] Not Disapprove

2 [ ] Disapprove

3 [ ] Strongly Disapprove

f. Smoking marijuana occasionally

1 [ ] Not Disapprove

2 [ ] Disapprove

3 [ ] Strongly Disapprove

g. Trying “crack” cocaine once or twice

1 [ ] Not Disapprove

2 [ ] Disapprove

3 [ ] Strongly Disapprove

h. Trying “crack” cocaine occasionally

1 [ ] Not Disapprove

2 [ ] Disapprove

3 [ ] Strongly Disapprove

i. Trying cocaine powder once or twice

1 [ ] Not Disapprove

2 [ ] Disapprove

3 [ ] Strongly Disapprove

j. Taking cocaine powder occasionally

1 [ ] Not Disapprove

2 [ ] Disapprove

3 [ ] Strongly Disapprove

k. Taking one or two drinks nearly every day

1 [ ] Not Disapprove

2 [ ] Disapprove

3 [ ] Strongly Disapprove

l. Taking four or five drinks nearly every day

1 [ ] Not Disapprove

2 [ ] Disapprove

3 [ ] Strongly Disapprove

m. Having five or more drinks once or twice each weekend

1 [ ] Not Disapprove

2 [ ] Disapprove

3 [ ] Strongly Disapprove

n. Driving a car after having 1-2 drinks

1 [ ] Not Disapprove

2 [ ] Disapprove

3 [ ] Strongly Disapprove

o. Driving a car after having 5 or more drinks

1 [ ] Not Disapprove

2 [ ] Disapprove

3 [ ] Strongly Disapprove

Scoring

Investigators can compare the results from these questions with the yearly national trends published on the Monitoring the Future website (http://monitoringthefuture.org/) and with specific variables on the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Data Archive (SAMHDA, http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/content/SAMHDA/index)).

Protocol Name from Source:

2015 Monitoring the Future (MTF)

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adolescent

Participants:

Adults and adolescents aged 13 years or older

Selection Rationale

The Monitoring the Future study is a reliable, valid, large-scale, national study that has been continuously administered to 12th graders since 1975. Since 1991, 8th and 10th graders have been included.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Substance use Friend Perception Questionnaire Assessment Score 3371958 CDE Browser
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel #3 (ERP 3) reviewed the measures in Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances, and Substance Abuse and Addiction domains.

Guidance from ERP 3 includes:

• Changed name of Measure

• Updated protocol

• New Data Dictionary

Back-compatible: there are changes to the Data Dictionary, previous version of the Data Dictionary and Variable mapping can be found here

Previous version in Toolkit archive (link)

Source

Bachman, J. G., Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Schulenberg, J. E., & Miech, R. A. (2015). The Monitoring the Future project after four decades: Design and procedures (Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 82). Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.

Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. (N.d.). Monitoring the Future: A continuing study of American youth. Anna Arbor, MI: Author. http://monitoringthefuture.org

General References

Chassin, L., Curran, P. J., Hussong, A. M., & Colder, C. R. (1996). The relation of parent alcoholism to adolescent substance use: A longitudinal follow-up study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 10-80.

Curran, P. J., Stice, E., & Chassin, L. (1997). The relation between adolescent alcohol use and peer alcohol use: A longitudinal random coefficients model. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 130-140.

Johnston, L., O’Malley, P., & Bachman, J. (1988). Illicit drug use, smoking and drinking by America’s high school students, college students, and young adults 1975-1987 (DHHS Publication No. [ADM] 89-1602). Washington, DC: National Institute on Drug Abuse, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

King, K. M., & Chassin, L. (2004). Mediating and moderated effects of adolescent behavioral undercontrol and parenting in the prediction of drug use disorders in emerging adulthood. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18, 239-249.

Marshal, M. P., & Molina, B. S. G. (2006). Antisocial behaviors moderate the deviant peer pathway to substance use in children with ADHD. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 216-226.

Marshal, M. P., Molina, B. S. G., & Pelham, W. E. (2003). Childhood ADHD and adolescent substance use: An examination of deviant peer group affiliation as a risk factor. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17, 293-302.

Protocol ID:

540402

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable Name Variable IDVariable DescriptiondbGaP Mapping
PX540402_SubstanceUse_CloseFriends_Alcohol_FivePlus_Daily
PX540402021300 How do you think your CLOSE FRIENDS feel (or more
would feel) about YOU having five or more drinks once or twice each weekend show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_CloseFriends_Alcohol_Four_Daily
PX540402021200 How do you think your CLOSE FRIENDS feel (or more
would feel) about YOU taking four or five drinks nearly every day show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_CloseFriends_Alcohol_One_Daily
PX540402021100 How do you think your CLOSE FRIENDS feel (or more
would feel) about YOU taking one or two drinks nearly every day show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_CloseFriends_Cigarettes_EveryDay
PX540402020200 How do you think your CLOSE FRIENDS feel (or more
would feel) about YOU smoking cigarettes every day show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_CloseFriends_Cocaine_Occasionally
PX540402021000 How do you think your CLOSE FRIENDS feel (or more
would feel) about YOU taking cocaine powder occasionally show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_CloseFriends_Cocaine_Once
PX540402020900 How do you think your CLOSE FRIENDS feel (or more
would feel) about YOU trying cocaine powder once or twice show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_CloseFriends_Crack_Occasionally
PX540402020800 How do you think your CLOSE FRIENDS feel (or more
would feel) about YOU trying ÔøΩcrackÔøΩ cocaine occasionally show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_CloseFriends_Crack_Once
PX540402020700 How do you think your CLOSE FRIENDS feel (or more
would feel) about YOU trying ÔøΩcrackÔøΩ cocaine once or twice show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_CloseFriends_Driving_After_FiveDrinks
PX540402021500 How do you think your CLOSE FRIENDS feel (or more
would feel) about YOU driving a car after having 5 or more drinks show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_CloseFriends_Driving_After_OneDrink
PX540402021400 How do you think your CLOSE FRIENDS feel (or more
would feel) about YOU driving a car after having 1ÔøΩ2 drinks show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_CloseFriends_Marijuana_Occasionally
PX540402020600 How do you think your CLOSE FRIENDS feel (or more
would feel) about YOU smoking marijuana occasionally show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_CloseFriends_Marijuana_Once
PX540402020500 How do you think your CLOSE FRIENDS feel (or more
would feel) about YOU trying marijuana once or twice smoking marijuana occasionally show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_CloseFriends_Pack_PerDay1
PX540402020100 How do you think your CLOSE FRIENDS feel (or more
would feel) about YOU smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_CloseFriends_Smokeless_Tobacco
PX540402020300 How do you think your CLOSE FRIENDS feel (or more
would feel) about YOU using smokeless tobacco occasionally show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_CloseFriends_Smokeless_Tobacco_Daily
PX540402020400 How do you think your CLOSE FRIENDS feel (or more
would feel) about YOU using smokeless tobacco several times per day show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_Friends_Alcohol
PX540402010500 How many of your friends would you estimate more
drink alcoholic beverages (liquor, beer, wine)? show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_Friends_Cigarettes
PX540402010100 How many of your friends would you estimate more
smoke cigarettes? show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_Friends_Cocaine
PX540402010400 How many of your friends would you estimate more
take cocaine powder? show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_Friends_Crack
PX540402010300 How many of your friends would you estimate more
take ÔøΩCrackÔøΩ cocaine? show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_Friends_Drunk_Week
PX540402010600 How many of your friends would you estimate more
get drunk at least once a week? show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_Friends_Electronic_Cigarette
PX540402010700 How many of your friends would you estimate more
use an e-cigarette, e-pen, etc.? show less
N/A
PX540402_SubstanceUse_Friends_Marijuana
PX540402010200 How many of your friends would you estimate more
smoke marijuana (pot, weed) or hashish? show less
N/A
Substance Abuse and Addiction
Measure Name:

Peer/Partner Substance Use and Tolerance of Substance Use

Release Date:

November 21, 2016

Definition

This measure assesses the perception (not actual use) of substance use by peers and tolerance of substance use.

Purpose

Peer and partner substance use and tolerance of substance use are strong predictors of potential adolescent substance use.

Keywords

Adolescent, Alcohol Abuse, Alcohol Use, Drug Abuse, Drug Use, Drugs, Monitoring the Future, Partner, Peer, Peer Tolerance, Peer Use, Romantic Partner, Spouse, Substance Abuse, Substance Use, Tolerance, SAA, Substance Use-related Psychosocial Risk Factors