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Protocol - Trauma and Adversity Exposure - Military

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Description:

This protocol includes the following four self-reported, deployment-related subscales from the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2 (DRRI-2): Difficult Living and Working Environment (14 items); Combat Experiences (17 items); Aftermath of Battle (13 items); and Perceived Threat (12 items). Items are rated on Likert-style scales and added together to give a score for each scale.

Protocol:

Summary of the DRRI-2:

This protocol includes the following four deployment-related subscales from the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2 (DRRI-2): Difficult Living and Working Environment; Combat Experiences; Aftermath of Battle; and Perceived Threat.

Difficult Living and Working Environment Scale

14 items from Section C: Deployment Environment, including:

  • Climate
  • Food quality
  • Access to bathroom
  • Adequate shelter
  • Ability to rest
  • Heavy gear

Scoring:

Each item is rated on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = Almost none of the time; 5 = Almost all of the time). Scores are summed across all items for a range of 14 to 70. Higher scores are indicative of more difficult living and working environment.

Combat Experiences Scale

17 items from Section D: Combat Experiences, including:

  • Witnessed someone (from unit or civilians) wounded or killed
  • Exposed to hostile or friendly fire
  • Part of convoy that was attacked
  • Injured in combat-related incident
  • Fired weapon at enemy
  • Searched for or disarmed enemy

Scoring:

Each item is rated on a 6-point Likert scale (1 = Never; 6 = Daily or almost daily). Scores are summed across all items for a range of 17 to 102. Higher scores are indicative of greater exposure to combat.

Aftermath of Battle Scale

13 items from Section E: Postbattle Experiences, including:

  • Saw refugees
  • Cared for injured/dying people
  • Saw wounded or disfigured civilians
  • Saw bodies of enemy
  • Interacted with detainees
  • Handled human remains

Scoring:

Each item is rated on a 6-point Likert scale (1 = Never; 6 = Daily or almost daily). Scores are summed across all items for a range of 17 to 102. Higher scores are indicative of greater exposure to the aftermath of combat.

Perceived Threat (Section G: Deployment Concerns)

12 items from Section G: Deployment Concerns, including:

  • Concerned health might suffer from nuclear, biological, chemical, or infectious agent
  • Danger of being wounded
  • Thought would not survive
  • Concerned about being taken hostage

Scoring:

Each item is rated on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = Strongly agree; 5 = Strongly disagree). Scores are summed across all items for a range of 12 to 60. Higher scores are indicative of more perceived threat.

Self-report of exposure to these events may facilitate identification of an index trauma for the assessment of PTSD symptoms (e.g., the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale or CAPS-see PTSD Symptoms, Severity and Diagnosis measure in the PhenX Toolkit).

Availability:

The Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2 (DRRI-2) is available for download from the National Center for PTSD at www.ptsd.va.gov.

Protocol Name from Source:

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adult

Participants:

Adults, ages 18 and older.

Specific Instructions:

The four subscales from the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2 (DRRI-2) included here address exposure to potentially traumatic events experienced by military service personnel. Self-report of exposure to these events may facilitate identification of an index trauma for the assessment of PTSD symptoms (e.g., the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS]-see PTSD Symptoms, Severity and Diagnosis).

For assessment of general (i.e., nonmilitary) potentially traumatic events, see the Life Events Checklist.

Selection Rationale

The Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2 (DRRI-2) is a self-administered, widely-used, reliable, psychometrically sound instrument that captures deployment and warzone experiences relevant to contemporary warfare (e.g., recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan) that have documented potential to affect the health and well-being of military personnel and veterans.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Military Trauma and Adversity Exposure Questionnaire Score 4588670 CDE Browser
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

Vogt, D. S., Smith, B. N., King, L. A., King, D. W., Knight, J. A., & Vasterling, J. J. (2013). Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2 (DRRI-2): An updated tool for assessing psychosocial risk and resilience factors among service members and veterans (PDF). Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 710-717. Instrument available from the National Center for PTSD at www.ptsd.va.gov.

General References

Kaloupek, D. G., Chard, K. M., Freed, M. C., Peterson, A. L., Riggs, D. S., Stein, M. B., & Tuma, F. (2010). Common data elements for posttraumatic stress disorder research. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91(11), 1684-1191.

King, L. A., King, D. W., Vogt, D. S., Knight, J. A., & Samper, R. E. (2006) Deployment risk and resilience inventory: A collection of measures for studying deployment-related experiences of military personnel and veterans. Military Psychology, 18, 89-120.

Vogt, D., Smith, B. N., King, D. W., & King, L. A. (2012). Manual for the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory-2 (DRRI-2): A collection of measures for studying deployment-related experiences of military veterans. Boston, MA: National Center for PTSD. Available from the National Center for PTSD at www.ptsd.va.gov.

Vogt, D. S., Proctor, S. P., King, D. W., King, L. A., & Vasterling, J. J. (2008). Validation of scales from the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory in a sample of Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans. Assessment, 15(4), 391-403.

Protocol ID:

630102

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX630102000000 Protocol 630102 - proprietary. Check DCW for contact 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Trauma and Adversity Exposure

Release Date:

November 21, 2014

Definition

A questionnaire to assess the participant’s exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs).

Purpose

This measure is used to document exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) that have sufficient characteristics (e.g., magnitude, proximity) to trigger a debilitating stress reaction and also to adversity that may amplify impact or impede recovery. Exposure to PTEs is associated with psychological and emotional distress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and substance abuse and also with increased use of health care services.

This measure includes two protocols. One protocol is used to screen the general population for lifetime exposure to PTEs. Cumulative exposure is associated with increased likelihood of developing PTSD after a new traumatic event. The other protocol is used to screen military populations for exposure to PTEs in a warzone or combat setting. Potentially traumatic exposures are common for military personnel in combat.

Keywords

Trauma, Potentially traumatic event, Stress, Stressor, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD