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Protocol - Exposures to Violence, Trauma, and Victimization - Adult

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Description:

The respondent is asked a comprehensive list of questions about trauma and victimization experiences over his/her lifetime. If the respondent answers "yes" to the first question, the interviewer administers additional follow-up questions about the event. Follow-up questions collect information about the person’s age when the event occurred, whether serious injury or death was involved, if there was an intense feeling of fear and helplessness, the frequency of the event, and whether anyone else ever tried to harm the person in the same way. The questions are sensitive and cover subjects such as physical violence, sexual abuse, suicide, and murder.

Specific Instructions:

The Psychosocial Working Group recommends that the Lifetime Traumatic and Victimization History (LTVH) instrument be used as a comprehensive assessment of an individual’s lifetime experiences to traumatic and victimization events. This instrument is used to capture information about a wide range of serious events (e.g., natural disasters, physical or sexual abuse, criminal assault, items stolen from you, accidents) that may have negative consequences (e.g., psychological distress, increased vulnerability). It is not a diagnostic tool for mental health conditions.

Adults who have experienced physical abuse, sexual abuse, or another traumatic event may be very sensitive to these questions. The interviewer should respect the privacy of the respondent and administer the questions in a location where others cannot overhear the interview.

The External Review Panel notes that the Lifetime Traumatic and Victimization History (LTVH) can be used to establish exposure to categories of potentially traumatic events typically encountered by the general population. Like the Life Events Checklist (LEC), the potentially traumatic events in the Lifetime Traumatic and Victimization History (LTVH) can be examined in preparation for the Criterion A inquiry in Post-traumatic Stress Disorders diagnostic instruments such as the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; see PTSD Symptoms, Severity and Diagnosis). Additionally, the External Review Panel notes that Criterion A is no longer required for PTSD diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5).

Recommendations for the Interviewer:

A "yes" or "no" response is all the information we are requesting from the respondent. We do not want to ask them details about what might have been a very painful experience.

The question "were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?" refers to the time of the incident only. For example, if they become distressed later as a result of the event, that is not what we are interested in.

The question "did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?" refers to any time during the event or afterwards when they were thinking about the event.

Any "act of nature" can be included, such as tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, landslides, avalanches, volcanoes, etc.

"Seeing a dead body" could refer to a situation where the respondent is with someone when they die. There are many hospice situations in which family members are present at the time of death. If the person defines this as a particularly stressful or upsetting event, then it must be included.

By "breaking in", we don’t mean breaking into a house because they forgot their key. We do want to include the type of event when someone breaks into the house when they are not living there or were kicked out.

The question which deals with "threatened you in a face-to-face" involves threat, but no weapon. This follows the different question about "threatening you with a weapon".

In the final open question, the person should state briefly or describe briefly the situation.

Protocol:

LIFETIME TRAUMA AND VICTIMIZATION HISTORY (LTVH) INSTRUMENT - ADULT VERSION

The next questions are about serious events that may have happened to you during your lifetime.

1. Have you ever been involved in a natural disaster, such as a tornado, hurricane, flood, or earthquake?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2 (Go to 2)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious injury?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

Was there another time you were involved in a natural disaster, such as a tornado, hurricane, flood, or earthquake?

Yes ... 1

No .... 2

2. Have you ever been involved in a man-made disaster, such as a fire, train crash, car accident, or building collapse?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 3)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there another time where you were involved in a man-made disaster, such as a fire, train crash, car accident, or building collapse?

Yes... 1

No.....2

3. Have you ever been involved in direct combat experience in a war?

[NOTE: INCLUDE POLICE SHOOTOUTS AND GANG FIGHTS]

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 4)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there another time where you were involved in direct combat experience in a war?

[NOTE: INCLUDE POLICE SHOOTOUTS AND GANG FIGHTS]

Yes.....1

No......2

4. Have you ever lived in a war zone? (For example, the Persian Gulf or Bosnia).

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 5)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there another time that you lived in a war zone?

Yes... 1

No.....2

5. Have you ever had a serious accident at work, at home, or somewhere else?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 6)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there another time when you had a serious accident at work, at home, or somewhere else?

Yes... 1

No.....2

6. Have you ever been exposed to dangerous chemicals or radioactivity?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 7)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there another time that you were exposed to dangerous chemicals or radioactivity?

Yes... 1

No.....2

7. Have you ever been shot at, stabbed, struck, kicked, beaten, punched, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 8)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else ever shot at, stabbed, struck, kicked, beaten, punched, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed you?

Yes... 1

No.....2

8. Have you ever been threatened with any kind of a weapon, like a knife, gun, baseball bat, frying pan, scissors, stick, rock, or bottle?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 9)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else threatened you with any kind of weapon?

Yes... 1

No.....2

9. Has anyone ever threatened you in a face-to-face confrontation?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 10)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else threatened you in a face-to-face confrontation?

Yes... 1

No….2

10. Have you ever been actually assaulted with any kind of a weapon, like a knife, gun, baseball bat, frying pan, scissors, stick, rock, or bottle?

Yes..........1

No........... 2 (Go to 11)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

_______

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else actually assaulted you with any kind of a weapon, like a knife, gun, baseball bat, frying pan, scissors, stick, rock, or bottle?

Yes... 1

No….2

11. When you were a child--that is, when you were in elementary or middle school, before about age 12--were you ever struck, kicked, beaten, punched, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed?

Yes...........1

No............2 (Go to 12)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

During your childhood were you struck, kicked, beaten, punched, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed by anyone else?

Yes... 1

No.....2

12. When you were a child- that is, when you were in elementary or middle school, before about age 12-were you ever physically abused?

Yes...........1

No............2 (Go to 13)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

During your childhood has anyone else physically abused you?

Yes... 1

No.....2

13. Has anyone--male or female--ever forced or coerced you to engage in unwanted sexual activity?

Yes...........1

No............2 (Go to 14)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else--male or female--ever forced or coerced you to engage in unwanted sexual activity?

Yes... 1

No.....2

14. Other than what we just talked about, did anyone, male or female, ever attempt to--but not actually-- force you to engage in unwanted sexual activity?

Yes.........1

No...........2 (Go to 15)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else--male or female, attempted to--but not actually--forced you to engage in unwanted sexual activity?

Yes... 1

No.....2

15. Other than what we just talked about, has anyone ever actually touched private parts of your body or made you touch theirs against your wishes?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 16)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How many times did this person do this to you?

# of TIMES:

________

How old were you the last time this person did this to you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else ever actually touched private parts of your body or made you touch theirs against your wishes?

Yes..... 1

No.......2

16. Have you ever had an immediate family member, romantic partner, or very close friend who was murdered?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 17)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was anyone else who was an immediate family member, romantic partner, or very close friend murdered?

Yes... 1

No.....2

17. Have you ever seen or been present when someone was murdered or seriously injured?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 18)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there any other time when you saw or were present when someone was murdered or seriously injured?

Yes... 1

No.....2

18. Have you ever had an immediate family member, romantic partner, or very close friend commit suicide?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 19)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did anyone else who was an immediate family member, romantic partner, or very close friend commit suicide?

Yes... 1

No….2

19. Have you ever seen a dead or mutilated body? Other than at a funeral, in the movies or newspaper?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 20)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there any other time when you saw a dead or mutilated body?

Yes... 1

No.....2

20. Have you ever seen or been present when another person was shot at, stabbed, struck, kicked, beaten, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 21)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there any other time when you saw or were present when another person was shot at, stabbed, struck, kicked, beaten, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed?

Yes... 1

No.....2

21. Have you ever seen or been present when another person was raped, sexually attacked, or made to engage in unwanted sexual activity?

Yes..... 1

No...... 2 (Go to 22)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there any other time when you saw or were present when another person was raped, sexually attacked, or made to engage in unwanted sexual activity?

Yes... 1

No….2

22. Has anyone ever intentionally damaged or destroyed property owned by you or by someone in your household?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 23)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Has anyone else intentionally damaged or destroyed property owned by you or by someone in your household?

Yes... 1

No.....2

23. Has anyone ever stolen something from you by using force or the threat of force like in a stick-up, mugging, or car-jacking?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 24)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Has anyone else ever stolen something from you by using force or the threat of force like in a stick-up, mugging, or car-jacking?

Yes... 1

No…..2

24. Has anyone ever tried to--but not actually--steal something from you by using force or the threat of force like in a stick-up, mugging, or car-jacking?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 25)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Has anyone else ever tried to--but not actually--steal something from you by using force or the threat of force like in a stick-up, mugging, or car-jacking?

Yes... 1

No.....2

25. Has anyone ever tried to or actually broken in to your house, garage, shed, or storage room when you were not there?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 26)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Has anyone else ever tried to or actually broken in to your house, garage, shed, or storage room when you were not there?

Yes... 1

No.....2

26. Has anyone ever tried to or actually broken in to your house, garage, shed, or storage room when you were there?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 27)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Has anyone else ever tried to or actually broken in to your house, garage, shed, or storage room when you were there?

Yes.....1

No......2

27. Has anyone ever stolen something directly from you without the threat or use of force (for example purse-snatching or pick-pocket)?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 28)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Has anyone else stolen something directly from you without the threat or use of force?

Yes.....1

No......2

28. Have you ever been kidnapped or held captive?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 29)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

How long were you held or not allowed to leave?

LENGTH OF TIME:_____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Was there any other time when you were kidnapped or held captive?

Yes... 1

No….2

29. Have you ever been stalked by anyone? For example, has anyone ever followed or spied on you?

Yes... 1

No.... 2 (Go to 30)

How old were you the first time it happened?

AGE:____

Were you in danger of death or serious physical injury?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No.... 2

How old were you the last time this person stalked you?

AGE: _____

Has anyone else stalked you?

Yes... 1

No….2

30. Have you ever been in any other situation in which you were in danger of death or serious physical injury, or in which you felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1 SPECIFY: _____________

No.... 2

How old were you when it happened?

AGE: _____

Was there any other situation in which you were in danger of death or serious physical injury, or in which you felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror?

Yes... 1

No….2

Scoring:

There are several ways to score the instrument, from very simple to more complex. One can simply count the number of events that the person endorsed, the total number of events (that is, if the event happened more than once), or the number of items of different types (general traumas, items 1-6; physical violence, items 7-10; physical abuse, items 11-12; sexual violence, items 13-15; seen family/friend murdered or commit suicide, items 16-18; witnessed trauma to someone else, items 19-21; crime victimization, items 22-27; kidnapped or stalked, items 28-29; or anything else, item 30). One can count items that occurred during certain time periods in the person’s life (childhood, adolescence, or adulthood) or items that only reached a certain threshold of intensity, based on questions about the person’s perception of the event (i.e., Were you afraid that you might die or get hurt really badly?). For certain purposes where less detail is desired, one might omit these follow-up questions entirely.

Protocol Name from Source:

Lifetime Traumatic and Victimization History (LTVH)

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

The interviewer must be trained and found competent to conduct personal interviews with individuals from the general population. The interviewer should be trained to prompt respondents further if a "don’t know" response is provided. It is preferable to either read the questionnaire aloud to the respondent or administer it in an audio-assisted computer interview (ACASI) format.

The questions are sensitive in nature and the interviewer should be trained to react appropriately to emotional responses. If a distressed respondent protocol is adopted the interviewer should be trained to administer those procedures.

Equipment Needs

These questions can be administered in a computerized or noncomputerized format (i.e., paper-and-pencil instrument). Computer software is necessary to develop computer-assisted instruments. A laptop computer/handheld computer will be needed to administer a computer-assisted questionnaire.

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Interviewer-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adult, Senior, Pregnancy

Participants:

Age 18+ years

Selection Rationale

The Lifetime Trauma and Victimization History (LTVH) instrument was developed to be brief, easy to administer, and easy for the respondent to comprehend the questions. The instrument captures information and frequencies of a wide range of traumatic experiences.

The instrument was validated by interviewing a case-control sample of neglected and physically/sexually abused children and comparing the results with official records and reports. Psychometric analysis of the physical abuse and sexual abuse responses yielded good discriminant validity. However, there was substantial underreporting for both types of abuse.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Adult Violence Exposure Assessment Score 3162928 CDE Browser
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) Exposures to violence - adult proto 62944-4 LOINC
Human Phenotype Ontology Abnormal aggressive, impulsive or violent behavior HP:0006919 HPO
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

Expert Review Panel 4 (ERP 4) reviewed the measures in the Neurology, Psychiatric, and Psychosocial domains.

Guidance from ERP 4 included the following:

  • Revised descriptions of measure

Source

Widom, C. S., Dutton, M. A., Czaja, S. J., & DuMont, K. A. (2005). Development and validation of a new instrument to assess lifetime trauma and victimization history. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(5), 519-531.

General References

Goodman, L. A., Corcoran, C. B., Turner, K., Yuan, N., & Green, B. L. (1998). Assessing traumatic event exposure: General issues and preliminary findings for the stressful life events screening questionnaire. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11(3), 521-542.

Green, B. (1996). Traumatic stress and disaster: Mental health factors influencing adaptation. Annual Review of Psychiatry. In F. L. Mak & C. C. Nadelson (Eds.), International Review of Psychiatry (Vol. 2, pp. 177-210). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Norris, F. H. (1992). Epidemiology of trauma: Frequency and impact of different potentially traumatic events on different demographic groups. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 409-418.

Widom, C. S., Czaja, S.J., & Dutton, M. A. (2008). Childhood victimization and lifetime revictimization. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 785-796.

Protocol ID:

181401

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable Name Variable IDVariable DescriptiondbGaP Mapping
PX181401_Assaulted_Weapon
PX181401100000 Have you ever been actually assaulted with more
any kind of a weapon, like a knife, gun, baseball bat, frying pan, scissors, stick, rock, or bottle? show less
N/A
PX181401_Assaulted_Weapon_Age_First_Happened
PX181401100100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Assaulted_Weapon_Age_Last_Happened
PX181401100500 How old were you the last time this person more
did this to you? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Assaulted_Weapon_Intense_Fear
PX181401100300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Assaulted_Weapon_Other_Times
PX181401100600 Has anyone else actually assaulted you with more
any kind of a weapon, like a knife, gun, baseball bat, frying pan, scissors, stick, rock, or bottle? show less
N/A
PX181401_Assaulted_Weapon_Serious_Injury
PX181401100200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Assaulted_Weapon_Times
PX181401100400 How many times did this person do this to you? N/A
PX181401_Attempted_Sexual_Activity
PX181401140000 Other than what we just talked about, did more
anyone, male or female ever attempt to--but not actually-- force you to engage in unwanted sexual activity? show less
N/A
PX181401_Attempted_Sexual_Activity_Age_FirstHappened
PX181401140100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Attempted_Sexual_Activity_Age_Last_Happened
PX181401140500 How old were you the last time this person more
did this to you? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Attempted_Sexual_Activity_Intense_Fear
PX181401140300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Attempted_Sexual_Activity_Other_Times
PX181401140600 Has anyone else--male or female, attempted more
to--but not actually--forced you to engage in unwanted sexual activity? show less
N/A
PX181401_Attempted_Sexual_Activity_Serious_Injury
PX181401140200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Attempted_Sexual_Activity_Times
PX181401140400 How many times did this person do this to you? N/A
PX181401_BreakIn_WhileThere_Age_First_Happened
PX181401260100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_BreakIn_WhileThere_Intense_Fear
PX181401260300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_BreakIn_WhileThere_Other_Times
PX181401260400 Has anyone else ever tried to or actually more
broken in to your house, garage, shed, or storage room when you were there? show less
N/A
PX181401_BreakIn_WhileThere_Serious_Injury
PX181401260200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Break_In
PX181401250000 Has anyone ever tried to or actually broken more
in to your house, garage, shed, or storage room when you were not there? show less
N/A
PX181401_Break_In_Age_First_Happened
PX181401250100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Break_In_Intense_Fear
PX181401250300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Break_In_Other_Times
PX181401250400 Has anyone else ever tried to or actually more
broken in to your house when you were not there? show less
N/A
PX181401_Break_In_Serious_Injury
PX181401250200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Break_In_While_There
PX181401260000 Has anyone ever tried to or actually broken more
in to your house, garage, shed, or storage room when you were there? show less
N/A
PX181401_Chemicals_Radiation
PX181401060000 Have you ever been exposed to dangerous more
chemicals or radioactivity? show less
N/A
PX181401_Chemicals_Radiation_Age
PX181401060100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Chemicals_Radiation_Intense_Fear
PX181401060300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Chemicals_Radiation_Other_Time
PX181401060400 Was there another time you were exposed to more
dangerous chemicals or radioactivity? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Chemicals_Radiation_Serious_Injury
PX181401060200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Combat_Experience
PX181401030000 Have you ever been involved in direct combat more
experience in a war? [NOTE: INCLUDE POLICE SHOOTOUTS AND GANG FIGHTS] show less
N/A
PX181401_Combat_Experience_Age
PX181401030100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Combat_Experience_Fear
PX181401030300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Combat_Experience_Other_Time
PX181401030400 Was there another time where you were more
involved in direct combat experience in a war? [NOTE: INCLUDE POLICE SHOOTOUTS AND GANG FIGHTS] show less
N/A
PX181401_Combat_Experience_Serious_Injury
PX181401030200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Dead_Body
PX181401190000 Have you ever seen a dead or mutilated body? more
Other than at a funeral, in the movies or newspaper? show less
N/A
PX181401_Dead_Body_Age_First_Happened
PX181401190100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Dead_Body_Intense_Fear
PX181401190300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Dead_Body_Other_Times
PX181401190400 Was there any other time when you saw a dead more
or mutilated body? show less
N/A
PX181401_Dead_Body_Serious_Injury
PX181401190200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Destroyed_Property
PX181401220000 Has anyone ever intentionally damaged or more
destroyed property owned by you or by someone in your household? show less
N/A
PX181401_Destroyed_Property_Age_First_Happened
PX181401220100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Destroyed_Property_Intense_Fear
PX181401220300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Destroyed_Property_Other_Times
PX181401220400 Has anyone else intentionally damaged or more
destroyed property owned by you or by someone in your household? show less
N/A
PX181401_Destroyed_Property_Serious_Injury
PX181401220200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Forced_Sexual_Activity
PX181401130000 Has anyone--male or female--ever forced or more
coerced you to engage in unwanted sexual activity? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Forced_Sexual_Activity_Age_FirstHappened
PX181401130100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Forced_Sexual_Activity_Age_LastHappened
PX181401130500 How old were you the last time this person more
did this to you? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Forced_Sexual_Activity_IntenseFear
PX181401130300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Forced_Sexual_Activity_Other_Times
PX181401130600 Has anyone else--male or female--ever forced more
or coerced you to engage in unwanted sexual activity? show less
N/A
PX181401_Forced_Sexual_Activity_SeriousInjury
PX181401130200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Forced_Sexual_Activity_Times
PX181401130400 How many times did this person do this to you? N/A
PX181401_Kidnapped
PX181401280000 Have you ever been kidnapped or held captive? N/A
PX181401_Kidnapped_Age_First_Happened
PX181401280100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Kidnapped_How_Long
PX181401280200 How long were you held or not allowed to leave? N/A
PX181401_Kidnapped_Intense_Fear
PX181401280400 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Kidnapped_Other_Times
PX181401280500 Was there any other time when you were more
kidnapped or held captive? show less
N/A
PX181401_Kidnapped_Serious_Injury
PX181401280300 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_KnownSomeone_Murdered
PX181401160000 Have you ever had an immediate family more
member, romantic partner, or very close friend who was murdered? show less
N/A
PX181401_KnownSomeone_Murdered_Age_First_Happened
PX181401160100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_KnownSomeone_Murdered_Intense_Fear
PX181401160300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_KnownSomeone_Murdered_Other_Times
PX181401160400 Was anyone else who was an immediate family more
member, romantic partner, or very close friend murdered? show less
N/A
PX181401_KnownSomeone_Murdered_Serious_Injury
PX181401160200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_KnownSomeone_Suicide
PX181401180000 Have you ever had an immediate family more
member, romantic partner, or very close friend commit suicide? show less
N/A
PX181401_KnownSomeone_Suicide_Age_First_Happened
PX181401180100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_KnownSomeone_Suicide_Intense_Fear
PX181401180300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_KnownSomeone_Suicide_Other_Times
PX181401180400 Did anyone else who was an immediate family more
member, romantic partner, or very close friend commit suicide? show less
N/A
PX181401_KnownSomeone_Suicide_Serious_Injury
PX181401180200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Lived_WarZone
PX181401040000 Have you ever lived in a war zone? (For more
example, the Persian Gulf or Bosnia). show less
N/A
PX181401_Lived_WarZone_Age
PX181401040100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Lived_WarZone_Intense_Fear
PX181401040300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Lived_WarZone_Other_Time
PX181401040400 Was there another time that you lived in a more
war zone? show less
N/A
PX181401_Lived_WarZone_Serious_Injury
PX181401040200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Manmade_Disaster
PX181401020000 Have you ever been involved in a man-made more
disaster, such as a fire, train crash, car accident, or building collapse? show less
N/A
PX181401_Manmade_Disaster_Age
PX181401020100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Manmade_Disaster_Intense_Fear
PX181401020300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Manmade_Disaster_Other_Time
PX181401020400 Was there another time where you were more
involved in a man-made disaster, such as a fire, train crash, car accident, or building collapse? show less
N/A
PX181401_Manmade_Disaster_Serious_Injury
PX181401020200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Natural_Disaster
PX181401010000 Have you ever been involved in a natural more
disaster, such as a tornado, hurricane, flood, or earthquake? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Natural_Disaster_Age
PX181401010100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Natural_Disaster_Intense_Fear
PX181401010300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Natural_Disaster_Other_Time
PX181401010400 Was there another time you were involved in more
a natural disaster, such as a tornado, hurricane, flood, or earthquake? show less
N/A
PX181401_Natural_Disaster_Serious_Injury
PX181401010200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_OtherPerson_PhysicallyHarmed
PX181401200000 Have you ever seen or been present when more
another person was shot at, stabbed, struck, kicked, beaten, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed? show less
N/A
PX181401_OtherPerson_PhysicallyHarmed_Age_First_Happened
PX181401200100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_OtherPerson_PhysicallyHarmed_Intense_Fear
PX181401200300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_OtherPerson_PhysicallyHarmed_Other_Times
PX181401200400 Was there any other time when you saw or more
heard another person be threatened with a weapon (for example, a gun or a knife)? show less
N/A
PX181401_OtherPerson_PhysicallyHarmed_Serious_Injury
PX181401200200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Other_Situations
PX181401300000 Have you ever been in any other situation in more
which you were in danger of death or serious physical injury, or in which you felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Other_Situations2
PX181401300300 Was there any other situation in which you more
were in danger of death or serious physical injury, or in which you felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Other_Situations_Age
PX181401300200 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Other_Situations_Specify
PX181401300100 Have you ever been in any other situation in more
which you were in danger of death or serious physical injury, or in which you felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror? SPECIFY show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_PhysicallyAbused_Before12
PX181401120000 When you were a child- that is, when you more
were in elementary or middle school, before about age 12-were you ever physically abused? show less
N/A
PX181401_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_Age_First_Happened
PX181401120100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_Age_Last_Happened
PX181401120500 How old were you the last time this person more
did this to you? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_Intense_Fear
PX181401120300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_Other_Times
PX181401120600 During your childhood--has anyone else more
physically abused you? show less
N/A
PX181401_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_Serious_Injury
PX181401120200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_PhysicallyAbused_Before12_Times
PX181401120400 How many times did this person do this to you? N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed
PX181401070000 Have you ever been shot at, stabbed, struck, more
kicked, beaten, punched, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed? show less
N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Age_First_Happened
PX181401070100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Age_Last_Time
PX181401070500 How old were you the last time this person more
did this to you? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Before12
PX181401110000 When you were a child--that is, when you more
were in elementary or middle school, before about age 12--were you ever struck, kicked, beaten, punched, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed? show less
N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Before12_Afraid_MightDie
PX181401110200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Before12_Age_FirstHappened
PX181401110100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Before12_Age_LastHappened
PX181401110500 How old were you the last time this person more
did this to you? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Before12_Intense_Fear
PX181401110300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Before12_Other_Times
PX181401110600 During your childhood-were you struck, more
kicked, beaten, punched, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed by anyone else? show less
N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Before12_Times
PX181401110400 How many times did this person do this to you? N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Intense_Fear
PX181401070300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Other_Time
PX181401070600 Has anyone else ever shot at, stabbed, more
struck, kicked, beaten, punched, slapped around, or otherwise physically harmed you? show less
N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Serious_Injury
PX181401070200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Physically_Harmed_Times
PX181401070400 How many times did this person do this to you? N/A
PX181401_Private_Parts
PX181401150000 Other than what we just talked about, has more
anyone ever actually touched private parts of your body or made you touch theirs against your wishes? show less
N/A
PX181401_Private_Parts_Age_First_Happened
PX181401150100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Private_Parts_Age_Last_Happened
PX181401150600 How old were you the last time this person more
did this to you? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Private_Parts_Intense_Fear
PX181401150300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Private_Parts_Other_Times
PX181401150700 Has anyone else ever actually touched more
private parts of your body or made you touch theirs against your wishes? show less
N/A
PX181401_Private_Parts_Serious_Injury
PX181401150200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Private_Parts_Times
PX181401150400 How many times did this person do this to you? N/A
PX181401_Serious_Accident
PX181401050000 Have you ever had a serious accident at more
home, at work, or somewhere else? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Serious_Accident_Age
PX181401050100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Serious_Accident_Intense_Fear
PX181401050300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Serious_Accident_Other_Time
PX181401050400 Was there another time you had a serious more
accident at home, at work, or somewhere else? show less
N/A
PX181401_Serious_Accident_Serious_Injury
PX181401050200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Stalked
PX181401290000 Have you ever been stalked by anyone? For more
example, has anyone ever followed or spied on you? show less
N/A
PX181401_Stalked_Age_First_Happened
PX181401290100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Stalked_Age_Last_Happened
PX181401290400 How old were you the last time this person more
stalked you? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Stalked_Intense_Fear
PX181401290300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Stalked_Other_Times
PX181401290500 Has anyone else stalked you? N/A
PX181401_Stalked_Serious_Injury
PX181401290200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Stolen_Property
PX181401230000 Has anyone ever stolen something from you by more
using force or the threat of force like in a stick-up, mugging, or car-jacking? show less
N/A
PX181401_Stolen_Property_Age_First_Happened
PX181401230100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Stolen_Property_Intense_Fear
PX181401230300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Stolen_Property_Other_Times
PX181401230400 Has anyone else ever stolen something from more
you by using force or the threat of force like in a stick-up, mugging, or car-jacking? show less
N/A
PX181401_Stolen_Property_Serious_Injury
PX181401230200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Stolen_WithoutThreat_Age_First_Happened
PX181401270100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Stolen_WithoutThreat_Intense_Fear
PX181401270200 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Stolen_WithoutThreat_Other_Times
PX181401270300 Has anyone else stolen something directly more
from you without the threat or use of force? show less
N/A
PX181401_Stolen_Without_Threat
PX181401270000 Has anyone ever stolen something directly more
from you without the threat or use of force (for example purse-snatching or pick-pocket)? show less
N/A
PX181401_Threatened
PX181401080000 Have you ever been threatened with any kind more
of a weapon, like a knife, gun, baseball bat, frying pan, scissors, stick, rock or bottle? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Threatened_Age_First_Happened
PX181401080100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Threatened_Age_Last_Happened
PX181401080500 How old were you the last time this person more
did this to you? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Threatened_Confrontation
PX181401090000 Has anyone ever threatened you in a more
face-to-face confrontation? show less
N/A
PX181401_Threatened_Confrontation_Age_First_Happened
PX181401090100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Threatened_Confrontation_Age_Last_Happened
PX181401090500 How old were you the last time this person more
did this to you? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Threatened_Confrontation_Intense_Fear
PX181401090300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Threatened_Confrontation_Other_Times
PX181401090600 Has anyone else threatened you in a more
face-to-face confrontation? show less
N/A
PX181401_Threatened_Confrontation_Serious_Injury
PX181401090200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Threatened_Confrontation_Times
PX181401090400 How many times did this person do this to you? N/A
PX181401_Threatened_Intense_Fear
PX181401080300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Threatened_Other_Times
PX181401080600 Has anyone else threatened you with any kind more
of weapon? show less
N/A
PX181401_Threatened_Serious_Injury
PX181401080200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Threatened_Times
PX181401080400 How many times did this person do this to you? N/A
PX181401_Tried_ToSteal_Age_First_Happened
PX181401240100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Tried_ToSteal_Intense_Fear
PX181401240300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Tried_ToSteal_Other_Times
PX181401240400 Has anyone else ever tried to--but not more
actually--steal something from you by using force or the threat of force like in a stick-up, mugging, or car-jacking? show less
N/A
PX181401_Tried_ToSteal_Serious_Injury
PX181401240200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Tried_To_Steal
PX181401240000 Has anyone ever tried to--but not more
actually--steal something from you by using force or the threat of force like in a stick-up, mugging, or car-jacking? show less
N/A
PX181401_Witnessed_SexualAttack
PX181401210000 Have you ever seen or been present when more
another person was raped, sexually attacked, or made to engage in unwanted sexual activity? show less
N/A
PX181401_Witnessed_SexualAttack_Age_First_Happened
PX181401210100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Witnessed_SexualAttack_Intense_Fear
PX181401210300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Witnessed_SexualAttack_Other_Times
PX181401210400 Was there any other time when you saw or more
were present when another person was raped, sexually attacked, or made to engage in unwanted sexual activity? show less
N/A
PX181401_Witnessed_SexualAttack_Serious_Injury
PX181401210200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
PX181401_Witness_Murder
PX181401170000 Have you ever seen or been present when more
someone was murdered or seriously injured? show less
N/A
PX181401_Witness_Murder_Age_First_Happened
PX181401170100 How old were you the first time it happened? Variable Mapping
PX181401_Witness_Murder_Intense_Fear
PX181401170300 Did you feel intense fear, helplessness, or more
horror? show less
Variable Mapping
PX181401_Witness_Murder_Other_Times
PX181401170400 Was there any other time when you saw or more
were present when someone was murdered or seriously injured? show less
N/A
PX181401_Witness_Murder_Serious_Injury
PX181401170200 Were you in danger of death or serious injury? N/A
Psychosocial
Measure Name:

Exposures to Violence, Trauma, and Victimization

Release Date:

December 13, 2010

Definition

This measure asks about the respondent’s history of violent, traumatic and victimization events.

Purpose

Traumatic and victimization events are major stressors that can adversely affect a child or adult’s physical and mental health. The type of event, age when it occurred, and frequency are important in assessing impact. If a person experiences more than one event or more than one type of event, the results may be cumulative.

Keywords

Psychosocial, violence, victimization, trauma, sexual abuse, physical abuse