Protocol - Exercise Dependence Scale
The Exercise Dependence Scale is a 21-item self-administered scale that can be administered in individual and group settings and has been used with respondents 18 years and older. Participants indicate their responses to each of the 21 items in the blank space provided after each item. They indicate their responses on a Likert scale anchored at the extremes with never (1) and always (6). The Exercise Dependence Scale requires approximately 5 minutes to complete.
Exercise Dependence Scale-21
Instructions. Using the scale provided below, please complete the following questions as honestly as possible. The questions refer to current exercise beliefs and behaviors that have occurred in the past 3 months. Please place your answer in the blank space provided after each statement.
1. I exercise to avoid feeling irritable._____
2. I exercise despite recurring physical problems._____
3. I continually increase my exercise intensity to achieve the desired effects/benefits._____
4. I am unable to reduce how long I exercise._____
5. I would rather exercise than spend time with family/friends._____
6. I spend a lot of time exercising._____
7. I exercise longer than I intend._____
8. I exercise to avoid feeling anxious._____
9. I exercise when injured._____
10. I continually increase my exercise frequency to achieve the desired effects/benefits._____
11. I am unable to reduce how often I exercise._____
12. I think about exercise when I should be concentrating on school/work._____
13. I spend most of my free time exercising._____
14. I exercise longer than I expect._____
15. I exercise to avoid feeling tense._____
16. I exercise despite persistent physical problems._____
17. I continually increase my exercise duration to achieve the desired effects/benefits._____
18. I am unable to reduce how intense I exercise._____
19. I choose to exercise so that I can get out of spending time with family/friends._____
20. A great deal of my time is spent exercising.____
21. I exercise longer than I plan._____
The proposed scoring procedure for the Exercise Dependence Scale is computer based, which allows for immediate and accurate scoring. The computer scoring of the Exercise Dependence Scale is based on the SPSS (Statistic Package for the Social Sciences). A syntax file (see Supplmental Information for Mental Health Research Collections) has been developed by the authors that enables immediate feedback to the Exercise Dependence Scale responses once the items are entered into SPSS. The syntax enables:
Computing a total and subscale mean scores for Exercise Dependence Scale-21. A higher score indicates more exercise-dependent symptoms.
Categorizing participants into either at-risk for exercise dependent, nondependent-symptomatic, or nondependent-asymptomatic groups. The categorization into one of the three groups is generated by a scoring manual that consists of flowchart decision rules in which items or combinations or items determine if an individual would be classified in the dependent, symptomatic, or asymptomatic range on each of the 7 DSM IV criteria. Individuals who are classified into the dependent range on 3 or more of the DSM criteria are classified as exercise dependence. The dependent range is operationalized as indicating a score of 5 or 6 for that item. Individuals who scored in the 3 to 4 range are classified as symptomatic. These individuals may theoretically be considered at-risk for exercise dependence. Finally, individuals who score in the 1-2 range are classified as asymptomatic.
Personnel and Training Required
|Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection||No|
|Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual||No|
Mode of Administration
Adults, ages 18 years and older
The Exercise Dependence Scale is a brief, valid, reliable and widely used scale that is consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for exercise dependence.
|caDSR Common Data Elements (CDE)||Exercise Dependency Questionnaire Assessment Score||4925815||CDE Browser|
|Human Phenotype Ontology||Abnormal eating behavior||HP:0100738||HPO|
|Human Phenotype Ontology||Anorexia||HP:0002039||HPO|
|Human Phenotype Ontology||Bulimia||HP:0100739||HPO|
Process and Review
Protocol Name from Source
Hausenblas, H. A., & Downs, D.S. (2002). How much is too much? The development and validation of the Exercise Dependence Scale. Psychology and Health, 17(4), 287-404.
Cook, B.J., & Hausenblas, H.A. (2011). Eating disorder-specific health-related quality of life and exercise in college females. Quality of Life Research, 55(8), 1129-1141.
Costa, S., Hausenblas, H. A., Oliva, P., Cuzzocrea, F., & Larcan, R. (2013). The role of age, gender, mood states and exercise frequency on exercise dependence. Journal of Behavior Addictions, 2(4), 216-223.
|Variable Name||Variable ID||Variable Description||dbGaP Mapping|
|PX650201080000||I exercise to avoid feeling anxious.||N/A|
|PX650201010000||I exercise to avoid feeling irritable.||N/A|
|PX650201150000||I exercise to avoid feeling tense.||N/A|
|PX650201160000||I exercise despite persistent physical problems.||N/A|
|PX650201020000||I exercise despite recurring physical problems.||N/A|
|PX650201200000||A great deal of my time is spent exercising.||N/A|
|PX650201170000||I continually increase my exercise duration more||N/A|
|PX650201100000||I continually increase my exercise frequency more||N/A|
|PX650201030000||I continually increase my exercise intensity more||N/A|
|PX650201050000||I would rather exercise than spend time with more||N/A|
|PX650201190000||I choose to exercise so that I can get out more||N/A|
|PX650201140000||I exercise longer than I expect.||N/A|
|PX650201070000||I exercise longer than I intend.||N/A|
|PX650201210000||I exercise longer than I plan.||N/A|
|PX650201130000||I spend most of my free time exercising.||N/A|
|PX650201120000||I think about exercise when I should be more||N/A|
|PX650201060000||I spend a lot of time exercising.||N/A|
|PX650201110000||I am unable to reduce how often I exercise.||N/A|
|PX650201040000||I am unable to reduce how long I exercise.||N/A|
|PX650201180000||I am unable to reduce how intense I exercise.||N/A|
|PX650201090000||I exercise when injured.||N/A|
August 7, 2015
A questionnaire to assess dependence on exercise.
Exercise dependence, which occurs when physical activity develops into a compulsive behavior, may have negative physical and psychological effects.
Exercise Dependence Scale, EDS, eating disorder, tolerance, withdrawal, intention effects, lack of control, time, reduction in other activities, continuance