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Protocol - Pain Catastrophizing - Child

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Description

The Pain Catastrophizing Scale - Child Version (PCS-C) includes 13 items that measure heightened negative cognitive and affective pain responses. Each item is rated on a 5-point Likert style scale from "not at all" (0) to "extremely" (4) with higher scores indicating more catastrophizing. A total score for the PCS-C scale can be calculated as the average of all responses. This protocol was validated in individuals aged 8- to 18-years-old.

Specific Instructions

None

Protocol

Pain Catastrophizing Scale - Child Version


Thoughts and feelings during pain

We are interested in what you think and how strong the feelings are when you are in pain. Below are 13 sentences of different thoughts and feelings you can have when you are in pain. Try to show us as clearly as possible what you think and feel by putting a circle around the word under each sentence that best reflects how strongly you have each thought.


       

  1. When I am in pain, I worry all the time about whether the pain will end.

NOT AT ALL

MILDLY

MODERATELY

SEVERLY

EXTREMELY

  1. When I am in pain, I feel I can’t go on like this much longer.

NOT AT ALL

MILDLY

MODERATELY

SEVERLY

EXTREMELY

  1. When I am in pain, it’s terrible and I think it’s never going to get better.

NOT AT ALL

MILDLY

MODERATELY

SEVERLY

EXTREMELY

  1. When I am in pain, it’s awful and I feel that it takes over me.

NOT AT ALL

MILDLY

MODERATELY

SEVERLY

EXTREMELY

  1. When I am in pain, I can’t stand it anymore.

NOT AT ALL

MILDLY

MODERATELY

SEVERLY

EXTREMELY

  1. When I am in pain, I become afraid that the pain will get worse.

NOT AT ALL

MILDLY

MODERATELY

SEVERLY

EXTREMELY

  1. When I am in pain, I keep thinking of other painful events.

NOT AT ALL

MILDLY

MODERATELY

SEVERLY

EXTREMELY

  1. When I am in pain, I want the pain to go away.

NOT AT ALL

MILDLY

MODERATELY

SEVERLY

EXTREMELY

  1. When I am in pain, I can’t keep it out of my mind.

NOT AT ALL

MILDLY

MODERATELY

SEVERLY

EXTREMELY

  1. When I am in pain, I keep thinking about how much it hurts.

NOT AT ALL

MILDLY

MODERATELY

SEVERLY

EXTREMELY

  1. When I am in pain, I keep thinking about how much I want the pain to stop.

NOT AT ALL

MILDLY

MODERATELY

SEVERLY

EXTREMELY

  1. When I am in pain, there is nothing I can do to stop the pain.

NOT AT ALL

MILDLY

MODERATELY

SEVERLY

EXTREMELY

  1. When I am in pain, I wonder whether something serious may happen.

NOT AT ALL

MILDLY

MODERATELY

SEVERLY

EXTREMELY

Crombez, Bijttebier, Eccleston, Mascagni, Mertens, Goubert and Verstraeten. (2012). Pain Catastrophizing Scale (child version and parent version). Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science. Retrieved from www.midss.ie

Availability

Available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Lifestage

Child, Adolescent

Participants

Children and Adolescents aged 8- to 18-years-old

Selection Rationale

The Pain Catastrophizing Scale is a brief, reliable, and valid self-administered questionnaire with child, adult, and parent versions that is broadly applicable to catastrophizing in both clinical and general populations. 

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
caDSR Common Data Elements (CDE) Pain Catastrophizing Scale-Child Version Assessment Score 7997176 CDE Browser
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

Not Applicable

Protocol Name from Source

Pain Catastrophizing Scale - Child Version (PCS-C)

Source

Crombez, G., Bijttebier, P., Eccleston, C., Mascagni, T., Mertens, G., Goubert, L., & Verstraeten, K. (2003). The child version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS-C): A preliminary validation. Pain, 104(3), 639-646.

General References

Brandelli, Y. N., Chambers, C. T., Tutelman, P. R., Stinson, J. N., Huber, A. M., & Wilson, J. P. (2019). Parent pain cognitions and treatment adherence in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 44(9), 1111-1119.

Engel, J. M., Wilson, S., Tran, S. T., Jensen, M. P., & Ciol, M. A. (2013). Pain catastrophizing in youths with physical disabilities and chronic pain. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 38(2), 192-201.

Hyacinth, O., Machado Silva-Rodrigues, F., Darezzo Rodrigues Nunes, M., Carlos Lopes, L., Jr, Fernandes, A., Castanheira Nascimento, L., & Jacob, E. (2020). Pain experience, physical function, pain coping, and catastrophizing in children with sickle cell disease who had normal and abnormal sensory patterns. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 60(6), 1079-1091.

Sil, S., Dampier, C., & Cohen, L. L. (2016). Pediatric sickle cell disease and parent and child catastrophizing. Journal of Pain, 17(9), 963-971.

Sullivan, M.J., Bishop, S.R., & Pivik, J. (1995). The pain catastrophizing scale: Development and validation. Psychological Assessment 7, 524-532

Protocol ID

860202

Variables
Export Variables
Variable Name Variable IDVariable DescriptiondbGaP Mapping
PX860202_Pain_Catastrophizing_Child_Afraid_Worse
PX860202060000 When I am in pain, I become afraid that the more
pain will get worse. show less
N/A
PX860202_Pain_Catastrophizing_Child_Cant_Go_On
PX860202020000 When I am in pain, I feel I can’t go more
n like this much longer. show less
N/A
PX860202_Pain_Catastrophizing_Child_Cant_Keep_Out_Mind
PX860202090000 When I am in pain, I can’t keep it out more
f my mind. show less
N/A
PX860202_Pain_Catastrophizing_Child_Cant_Stand
PX860202050000 When I am in pain, I can’t stand it anymore. N/A
PX860202_Pain_Catastrophizing_Child_Go_Away
PX860202080000 When I am in pain, I want the pain to go away. N/A
PX860202_Pain_Catastrophizing_Child_Hurts
PX860202100000 When I am in pain, I keep thinking about how more
much it hurts. show less
N/A
PX860202_Pain_Catastrophizing_Child_Never_Better
PX860202030000 When I am in pain, it’s terrible and more
I think it’s never going to get better. show less
N/A
PX860202_Pain_Catastrophizing_Child_Nothing_Stop
PX860202120000 When I am in pain, there is nothing I can do more
to stop the pain. show less
N/A
PX860202_Pain_Catastrophizing_Child_Other_Painful_Events
PX860202070000 When I am in pain, I keep thinking of other more
painful events. show less
N/A
PX860202_Pain_Catastrophizing_Child_Overwhelms
PX860202040000 When I am in pain, it’s awful and I fe more
l that it takes over me. show less
N/A
PX860202_Pain_Catastrophizing_Child_Want_Stop
PX860202110000 When I am in pain, I keep thinking about how more
much I want the pain to stop. show less
N/A
PX860202_Pain_Catastrophizing_Child_Whether_End
PX860202010000 When I am in pain, I worry all the time more
about whether the pain will end. show less
N/A
PX860202_Pain_Catastrophizing_Child_Wonder
PX860202130000 When I am in pain, I wonder whether more
something serious may happen. show less
N/A
Pain
Measure Name

Pain Catastrophizing

Release Date

May 18, 2022

Definition

Pain catastrophizing is an amplified negative experience of pain including ruminating on the pain, magnifying the pain, and feelings of helplessness about the experience.

Purpose

Pain catastrophizing is associated with poor pain outcomes, including an increase in pain sensitivity, greater use of opioids, longer hospital stays, and increased health care utilization. Individuals with sickle cell disease report higher levels of pain catastrophizing when compared with other chronic conditions such as arthritis and back pain.  

Keywords

Pain, catastrophizing, sickle cell disease, SCD, quality of life, helplessness, rumination, magnification of pain, pain experience

Measure Protocols
Protocol ID Protocol Name
860201 Pain Catastrophizing - Adult
860202 Pain Catastrophizing - Child
860203 Pain Catastrophizing - Parent Proxy
Publications

There are no publications listed for this protocol.