Protocol - Social Isolation
The UCLA Loneliness Scale includes 20 questions used to assess how lonely the respondent feels. Each question begins with the statement "How often do you feel . . . ," followed by a positive or negative description of social interactions with others. The respondent is asked to indicate the frequency he/she feels that way (never, rarely, sometimes, always) for each question.
The Expert Review Panel notes that a Three-Item Loneliness Scale has been developed from the UCLA Loneliness Scale (see link]).
Instructions: The following statements describe how people sometimes feel. For each statement, please indicate how often you feel the way described by writing a number in the space provided. Here is an example:
How often do you feel happy?
If you never feel happy, you would respond "never"; if you always feel happy, you would respond "always".
NEVER RARELY SOMETIMES ALWAYS
1 2 3 4
____ 1. How often do you feel that you are in tune with the people around you?
____ 2. How often do you feel that you lack companionship?
____ 3. How often do you feel that there is no one you can turn to?
____ 4. How often do you feel alone?
____ 5. How often do you feel part of a group of friends?
____ 6. How often do you feel that you have a lot in common with the people around you?
____ 7. How often do you feel that you are no longer close to anyone?
____ 8. How often do you feel that your interests and ideas are not shared by those around you?
____ 9. How often do you feel outgoing and friendly?
____ 10. How often do you feel close to people?
____ 11. How often do you feel left out?
____ 12. How often do you feel that your relationships with others are not meaningful?
____ 13. How often do you feel that no one really knows you well?
____ 14. How often do you feel isolated from others?
____ 15. How often do you feel you can find companionship when you want it?
____ 16. How often do you feel that there are people who really understand you?
____ 17. How often do you feel shy?
____ 18. How often do you feel that people are around you but not with you?
____ 19. How often do you feel that there are people you can talk to?
____ 20. How often do you feel that there are people you can turn to?
Items 1, 5, 6, 9, 10, 15, 16, 19, and 20 should be reversed. Sum the total of all items. Higher scores indicate greater degrees of loneliness.
Copyright © 1994 by Daniel W. Russell
Personnel and Training Required
|Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection||No|
|Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual||No|
Mode of Administration
Ages 18 years and older
The UCLA Loneliness Scale is the most commonly used instrument to assess loneliness. The scale is highly reliable (internal consistency of 0.89-0.94 and test-retest of 0.73). It has been used successfully in several countries with different cultures.
|Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC)||Social isolation proto||62933-7||LOINC|
|Human Phenotype Ontology||No social interaction||HP:0008763||HPO|
|caDSR Form||PhenX PX181001 - Social Isolation||6189589||caDSR Form|
Process and Review
Expert Review Panel 4 (ERP 4) reviewed the measures in the Neurology, Psychiatric, and Psychosocial domains.
Guidance from ERP 4 included the following:
· Revised descriptions of measure
Protocol Name from Source
UCLA Loneliness Scale
Russell, D. (1996). The UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3): Reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66, 20-40.
Doane, L. D., & Adam, E. K. (2010). Loneliness and cortisol: Momentary, day-to-day, and trait associations. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 430-441.
Fox, C., Harper, A., Hyner, G., & Lyle, R. (1994). Loneliness, emotional repression, marital quality, and major life events in women who develop breast cancer. Journal of Community Health, 19, 467-482.
Pressman, S. D., Cohen, S., Miller, G. E., Barkin, A., Rabin, B. S., & Treanor, J. J. (2005). Loneliness, social network size, and immune response to influenza vaccination in college freshmen. Health Psychology, 24, 297-306.
Seeman, T. E. (2000). Health promoting effects of friends and family on health outcomes in older adults. American Journal of Health Promotion, 14, 362-370.
|Variable Name||Variable ID||Variable Description||dbGaP Mapping|
|PX181001100000||How often do you feel close to people?||N/A|
|PX181001150000||How often do you feel you can find more||N/A|
|PX181001040000||How often do you feel alone?||N/A|
|PX181001170000||How often do you feel shy?||N/A|
|PX181001080000||How often do you feel that your interests more||N/A|
|PX181001010000||How often do you feel that you are in tune more||N/A|
|PX181001140000||How often do you feel isolated from others?||Variable Mapping|
|PX181001020000||How often do you feel that you lack companionship?||Variable Mapping|
|PX181001110000||How often do you feel left out?||Variable Mapping|
|PX181001060000||How often do you feel that you have a lot in more||N/A|
|PX181001070000||How often do you feel that you are no longer more||N/A|
|PX181001030000||How often do you feel that there is no one more||N/A|
|PX181001130000||How often do you feel that no one really more||N/A|
|PX181001090000||How often do you feel outgoing and friendly?||N/A|
|PX181001050000||How often do you feel part of a group of friends?||N/A|
|PX181001180000||How often do you feel that people are around more||N/A|
|PX181001160000||How often do you feel that there are people more||N/A|
|PX181001190000||How often do you feel that there are people more||N/A|
|PX181001200000||How often do you feel that there are people more||N/A|
|PX181001120000||How often do you feel that your more||N/A|
December 13, 2010
This is a scale used to assess feelings of loneliness or social isolation.
Social isolation and loneliness have been associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes. Individuals who experience social isolation have shown signs of depression and potential links to cancer and impaired immune function. An increase in morbidity and mortality has been found in some studies. These outcomes can be independent of the size of a person’s social network or network connections.
social isolation, Psychosocial, loneliness, isolation, depression
|Protocol ID||Protocol Name|
Calkins, M., et al. (2020) Pennsylvania first-episode program evaluation of coordinated specialty care: Six-and 12-month outcomes. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 2020 May; 46: S228-S229. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbaa030.556