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Protocol - Crime and Delinquency - Adolescent

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Description:

Using a list of 40 criminal and delinquent questions, the respondent indicates if he or she has engaged in each activity-and, if so, how many times in the past year.

Specific Instructions:

Several of the activities are criminal in nature, so it is essential that the interviewer explains that the answers are confidential and that no one other than the research staff will be able to see the answers. If the respondents are thought to be at high risk for involvement in serious delinquent or criminal activities, the researchers may want to obtain a Certificate of Confidentiality (COC). Once obtained, the researcher should inform the respondent that he/she has a COC and explain what the certificate means. COCs are issued by the National Institutes of Health and other U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) agencies to help minimize risks to respondents by adding an additional level of protection for maintaining the confidentiality of private information.

Self-reports of criminal and delinquent activities may have limitations with regard to the ability to recall events, understand the questions, and tell the truth (e.g., exaggeration or concealment). These limitations have been documented by others (Chaiken & Chaiken, 1990; Elliott et al., 1989; Farrington et al., 1996; Hindelang et al., 1981) and should be evaluated by the investigator.

Protocol:

This section deals with your own behavior. Remember that all your answers are confidential. Ill read a series of behaviors to you. Please give me your best estimate of the exact number of times youve done each thing during the last year.

1. How many times in the last year have you run away from home?

__ __ __

2. How many times in the last year have you skipped (classes/school) without an excuse?

__ __ __

3. How many times in the last year have you been suspended or sent home from school for bad behavior?

__ __ __

4. How many times in the last year have you lied about your age to get into some place or to buy something (for example, lying about your age to get into a movie or to buy alcohol)?

__ __ __

5. How many times in the last year have you cheated on school tests?

__ __ __

6. How many times in the last year have you hitchhiked where it was illegal to do so?

__ __ __

7. How many times in the last year have you carried a hidden weapon?

__ __ __

8. How many times in the last year have you been loud, rowdy, or unruly in a public place so that people complained about it or you got in trouble?

__ __ __

9. How many times in the last year have you begged for money or things from strangers?

__ __ __

10. How many times in the last year have you made obscene telephone calls such as calling someone and saying dirty things?

__ __ __

11. How many times in the last year have you been drunk in a public place?

__ __ __

12. How many times in the last year have you purposely damaged or destroyed property that did not belong to you (for example, breaking, cutting, or marking up something)?

__ __ __

13. How many times in the last year have you purposely set fire to a house, building, car, or other property or tried to do so?

__ __ __

14. How many times in the last year have you broken city curfew laws (that is, been in a public place including out in the street without a parent or other adult during the curfew period such as from 10:30 p.m. to 5:00 a.m.)?

__ __ __

15. How many times in the last year have you avoided paying for things such as movies, bus or subway rides, and food or computer services?

__ __ __

16. How many times in the last year have you gone into or tried to go into a building to steal something?

__ __ __

17. How many times in the last year have you stolen or tried to steal money or things worth $5 or less?

__ __ __

18. How many times in the last year have you stolen or tried to steal money or things worth between $5 and $50?

__ __ __

19. How many times in the last year have you stolen or tried to steal money or things worth more than $50 but less than $100?

__ __ __

20. How many times in the last year have you stolen or tried to steal money or things worth $100 or more?

__ __ __

21. How many times in the last year have you taken something from a store without paying for it (including events you have already told me about)?

__ __ __

22. How many times in the last year have you snatched someones purse or wallet or picked someones pocket?

__ __ __

23. How many times in the last year have you taken something from a car that did not belong to you?

__ __ __

24. How many times in the last year have you knowingly bought, sold, or held stolen goods or tried to do any of these things?

__ __ __

25. How many times in the last year have you gone joyriding (that is, taken a motor vehicle such as a car or motorcycle for a ride or drive without the owners permission)?

__ __ __

26. How many times in the last year have you stolen or tried to steal a motor vehicle such as a car or motorcycle?

__ __ __

27. How many times in the last year have you used checks illegally or used a slug or fake money to pay for something (including intentional overdrafts)?

__ __ __

28. How many times in the last year have you used or tried to use a credit or bank card without the owners permission?

__ __ __

29. How many times in the last year have you tried to cheat someone by selling them something that was worthless or not what you said it was?

__ __ __

30. How many times in the last year have you attacked someone with a weapon or with the idea of seriously hurting or killing them?

__ __ __

31. How many times in the last year have you hit someone with the idea of hurting them (other than the events just mentioned)?

__ __ __

32. How many times in the last year have you used a weapon, force, or strong-arm methods to get money or things from people?

__ __ __

33. How many times in the last year have you thrown objects such as rocks or bottles at people (other than events you have already mentioned)?

__ __ __

34. How many times in the last year have you been involved in gang fights?

__ __ __

35. How many times in the last year have you been paid for having sexual relations with someone?

__ __ __

36. How many times in the last year have you physically hurt or threatened to hurt someone to get them to have sex with you?

__ __ __

37. How many times in the last year have you had or tried to have sexual relations with someone against their will (other than events you just mentioned)?

__ __ __

38. How many times in the last year have you sold marijuana or hashish (pot, grass, hash)?

__ __ __

39. How many times in the last year have you sold hard drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and LSD (total freq. of all hard drug sales, not limited to these three drugs)?

__ __ __

40a. Have you done anything else in the past year that could have gotten you in trouble with the police?

1 [ ] yes

2 [ ] no

40b. You said that you had done other things that could have gotten you in trouble with the police.

a. What kind of things did you do? b. How many times in the past year?

1. ____________________ __ __ __

2. ____________________ __ __ __

3. ____________________ __ __ __

4. ____________________ __ __ __

5. ____________________ __ __ __

Scoring:

Typically researchers use this information to capture which criminal and delinquent activities occurred and the prevalence during the last year.

Scoring can take the form of counting up the number of items endorsed or by calculating the sum of the item frequencies, where the nonendorsed items are scored "0". In addition, types of antisocial and criminal behaviors can be assessed (alcohol and drug use, minor delinquency, serious delinquency, violence, etc.). A Guttman scale may be used to classify the more serious or violent offenses (see Loeber et al., 1998). Researchers should consult with the original sources and later publications for examples of scoring techniques.

If a summary delinquency scale is being prepared the Psychosocial Working Group recommends that items that are not against the law be removed from the scale (e.g., skipped school, cheated on school tests, suspended for bad behavior). In addition, items that overlap, such as stealing something worth $5 to $50 and taking something from the store without paying (shoplifting) should not count as two endorsed items, only one.

Protocol Name from Source:

Not applicable; see source

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

The interviewer must be trained to conduct personal interviews with individuals from the general population. The interviewer must be trained and found to be competent (i.e., tested by an expert) at the completion of personal interviews. The interviewer should be trained to prompt respondents further if a "don’t know" response is provided.

Equipment Needs

These questions can be administered in a computerized or noncomputerized format (i.e., paper-and-pencil instrument). Computer software is necessary to develop computer-assisted instruments. A laptop computer/handheld computer will be needed to administer a computer-assisted questionnaire.

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered or interviewer-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adolescent

Participants:

Ages 11-17 years

Selection Rationale

These questions have been used for the National Youth Survey (NYS), three large longitudinal surveys (Denver Youth Survey, Pittsburgh Youth Study, and Rochester Youth Development Study), and several other surveys in the past three decades. Self-reports of crime and delinquent activities have been proven to be an effective method of capturing this sensitive information.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Adolescent Crime And Delinquency Assessment Score 3162936 CDE Browser
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) Crime delinquency adolescent proto 62939-4 LOINC
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel 4 (ERP 4) reviewed the measures in the Neurology, Psychiatric, and Psychosocial domains.

Guidance from ERP 4 included the following:

· No changes

Source

Huizinga, D., Esbensen, F., & Weiher, A. (1991). Are there multiple paths to delinquency? Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 82, 83-118.

General References

Chaiken, J. M., & Chaiken, M. R. (1990). Drugs and predatory crime. In M. Tonry & J. Q. Wilson (Eds.), Crime and justice, Vol. 13: Drugs and crime (pp. 203-239). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Menard, S. (1989). Multiple problem youth: Delinquency, substance use, and mental health problems. New York: Springer.

Farrington, D. P., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Lober, M., Van Kammen, W., & Schmidt, L. (1996). Self-reported delinquency and a combined delinquency seriousness scale based on boys, mothers, and teachers: Concurrent and predictive validity for African Americans and Caucasians. Criminology, 34, 501-525.

Huizinga, D., & Elliott, D. S. (1986). Re-assessing the reliability and validity of self-reported delinquency measures. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 2(4), 293-327.

Huizinga, D., & Esbensen, F. (1990). Scales and measures of the Denver Youth Survey, 1990. Boulder, CO: Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado.

Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Kammen, W. B. (1998). Antisocial behavior and mental health problems: Explanatory factors in childhood and adolescence. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Moffitt, T. E. (2005). Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behaviors: Evidence from behavioral-genetic research. Advances in Genetics, 55, 41-104.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health. (1976). National Youth Survey, Wave 1, 1976. Bethesda, MD: Author.

Protocol ID:

181201

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable Name Variable IDVariable DescriptiondbGaP Mapping
PX181201_Attacked_Someone
PX181201300000 How many times in the last year have you more
attacked someone with a weapon or with the idea of seriously hurting or killing them? show less
N/A
PX181201_Avoided_Paying
PX181201150000 How many times in the last year have you more
avoided paying for things such as movies, bus or subway rides, and food or computer services? show less
N/A
PX181201_Bank_Cards
PX181201280000 How many times in the last year have you more
used or tried to use a credit or bank cards without the owner's permission? show less
N/A
PX181201_Begged_For_Money
PX181201090000 How many times in the last year have you more
begged for money or things from strangers? show less
N/A
PX181201_Broken_City_Curfew_Laws
PX181201140000 How many times in the last year have you more
broken city curfew laws (for example, been in a public place including out in the street without a parent or other adult during the curfew period? show less
N/A
PX181201_Carried_Hidden_Weapon
PX181201070000 How many times in the last year have you more
carried a hidden weapon? show less
N/A
PX181201_Cheated
PX181201050000 How many times in the last year have you more
cheated on school tests? show less
N/A
PX181201_Cheat_Someone
PX181201290000 How many times in the last year have you more
tried to cheat someone by selling them something that was worthless or not what you said it was? show less
N/A
PX181201_Destroyed_Property
PX181201120000 How many times in the last year have you more
purposely damaged or destroyed property that did not belong to you (for example, breaking, cutting or marking up something)? show less
N/A
PX181201_Fake_Money
PX181201270000 How many times in the last year have you more
used checks illegally or used a slug or fake money to pay for something (including intentional overdrafts)? show less
N/A
PX181201_Forced_Sex
PX181201360000 How many times in the last year have you more
physically hurt or threatened to hurt someone to get them to have sex with you? show less
N/A
PX181201_Gang_Fights
PX181201340000 How many times in the last year have you more
been involved in gang fights? show less
N/A
PX181201_Hitchhiked
PX181201060000 How many times in the last year have you more
hitchhiked where it was illegal to do so? show less
N/A
PX181201_Hit_Someone
PX181201310000 How many times in the last year have you hit more
someone with the idea of hurting them (other than the events just mentioned)? show less
N/A
PX181201_Joyriding
PX181201250000 How many times in the last year have you more
gone joyriding (that is, taken a motor vehicle such as a car or motorcycle for a ride or drive without the owner's permission)? show less
N/A
PX181201_Lied_About_Age
PX181201040000 How many times in the last year have you more
lied about your age to get into some place or to buy something (for example, lying about your age to get into a movie or to buy alcohol)? show less
N/A
PX181201_Loud_Rowdy_Unruly
PX181201080000 How many times in the last year have you more
been loud, rowdy, or unruly in a public place so that people complained about it or you got in trouble? show less
N/A
PX181201_Obscene_Telephone_Calls
PX181201100000 How many times in the last year have you more
made obscene telephone calls such as calling someone and saying dirty things? show less
N/A
PX181201_Other_Forced_Sex
PX181201370000 How many times in the last year have you had more
or tried to have sexual relations with someone against their will (other than events you just mentioned)? show less
N/A
PX181201_Paid_For_Sex
PX181201350000 How many times in the last year have you more
been paid for having sexual relations with someone? show less
N/A
PX181201_Publicly_Drunk
PX181201110000 How many times in the last year have you more
been drunk in a public place? show less
N/A
PX181201_Run_Away_From_Home
PX181201010000 How many times in the last year have you run more
away from home? show less
N/A
PX181201_Set_Fire
PX181201130000 How many times in the last year have you more
purposely set fire to a house, building, car, or other property or tried to do so? show less
N/A
PX181201_Shoplift
PX181201210000 How many times in the last year have you more
taken something from a store without paying for it (including events you have already told me about)? show less
N/A
PX181201_Skipped_Classes_School
PX181201020000 How many times in the last year have you more
skipped (classes/school) without an excuse? show less
N/A
PX181201_Sold_Hard_Drugs
PX181201390000 How many times in the last year have you more
sold hard drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and LSD (total freq. of all hard drug sales, not limited to these three drugs)? show less
N/A
PX181201_Sold_Marijuana
PX181201380000 How many times in the last year have you more
sold marijuana or hashish ('pot,' 'grass,' 'hash')? show less
N/A
PX181201_Steal_100_Dollars
PX181201190000 How many times in the last year have you more
stolen or tried to steal money or things worth more than $50 but less than $100? show less
N/A
PX181201_Steal_50_Dollars
PX181201180000 How many times in the last year have you more
stolen or tried to steal money or things worth between $5 and $50? show less
N/A
PX181201_Steal_5Dollars
PX181201170000 How many times in the last year have you more
stolen or tried to steal money or things worth $5 or less? show less
N/A
PX181201_Steal_Car
PX181201260000 How many times in the last year have you more
stolen or tried to steal a motor vehicle such as a car or motorcycle? show less
N/A
PX181201_Steal_From_Building
PX181201160000 How many times in the last year have you more
gone into or tried to go into a building to steal something? show less
N/A
PX181201_Steal_From_Car
PX181201230000 How many times in the last year have you more
taken something from a car that did not belong to you? show less
N/A
PX181201_Steal_MoreThan_100_Dollars
PX181201200000 How many times in the last year have you more
stolen or tried to steal money or things worth $100 or more? show less
N/A
PX181201_Stolen_Goods
PX181201240000 How many times in the last year have you more
knowingly bought, sold or held stolen goods or tried to do any of these things? show less
N/A
PX181201_Stolen_Purse_Wallet
PX181201220000 How many times in the last year have you more
snatched someone's purse or wallet or picked someone's pocket? show less
N/A
PX181201_Strongarm_Money
PX181201320000 How many times in the last year have you more
used a weapon, force, or strong-arm methods to get money or things from people? show less
N/A
PX181201_Suspended_Sent_Home
PX181201030000 How many times in the last year have you more
been suspended or sent home from school for bad behavior? show less
N/A
PX181201_Thrown_Objects
PX181201330000 How many times in the last year have you more
thrown objects such as rocks or bottles at people (other than events you have already mentioned)? show less
N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police
PX181201400100 Have you done anything else in the past year more
that could have gotten you in trouble with the police? show less
N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Frequency_1
PX181201400202 How many times in the past year? N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Frequency_2
PX181201400302 How many times in the past year? N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Frequency_3
PX181201400402 How many times in the past year? N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Frequency_4
PX181201400502 How many times in the past year? N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Frequency_5
PX181201400602 How many times in the past year? N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Specify_1
PX181201400201 What kind of things did you do? N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Specify_2
PX181201400301 What kind of things did you do? N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Specify_3
PX181201400401 What kind of things did you do? N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Specify_4
PX181201400501 What kind of things did you do? N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Specify_5
PX181201400601 What kind of things did you do? N/A
Psychosocial
Measure Name:

Crime and Delinquency

Release Date:

December 13, 2010

Definition

This measure is a series of questions used to assess criminal and delinquent behavior in the past year.

Purpose

Information about a person’s criminal and delinquent behaviors has been used in a number of studies to assess development, and more recent studies have looked at the ways in which certain genotypes interact with childhood adversities to predict violent and antisocial behaviors. In addition, delinquent behaviors make up an important part of the criteria for conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder diagnoses (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Association) and include drug and alcohol problems associated with the illegal use of alcohol and drugs.

Keywords

Psychosocial, crime, delinquent, criminal, delinquency, behavior problems, conduct disorder, externalizing behavior