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Protocol - Crime and Delinquency - Adolescent

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Description:

Using a list of 40 criminal and delinquent questions, the respondent indicates if he or she has engaged in each activity-and, if so, how many times in the past year.

Protocol:

This section deals with your own behavior. Remember that all your answers are confidential. I'll read a series of behaviors to you. Please give me your best estimate of the exact number of times you've done each thing during the last year.

1. How many times in the last year have you run away from home?

__ __ __

2. How many times in the last year have you skipped (classes/school) without an excuse?

__ __ __

3. How many times in the last year have you been suspended or sent home from school for bad behavior?

__ __ __

4. How many times in the last year have you lied about your age to get into some place or to buy something (for example, lying about your age to get into a movie or to buy alcohol)?

__ __ __

5. How many times in the last year have you cheated on school tests?

__ __ __

6. How many times in the last year have you hitchhiked where it was illegal to do so?

__ __ __

7. How many times in the last year have you carried a hidden weapon?

__ __ __

8. How many times in the last year have you been loud, rowdy, or unruly in a public place so that people complained about it or you got in trouble?

__ __ __

9. How many times in the last year have you begged for money or things from strangers?

__ __ __

10. How many times in the last year have you made obscene telephone calls such as calling someone and saying dirty things?

__ __ __

11. How many times in the last year have you been drunk in a public place?

__ __ __

12. How many times in the last year have you purposely damaged or destroyed property that did not belong to you (for example, breaking, cutting, or marking up something)?

__ __ __

13. How many times in the last year have you purposely set fire to a house, building, car, or other property or tried to do so?

__ __ __

14. How many times in the last year have you broken city curfew laws (that is, been in a public place including out in the street without a parent or other adult during the curfew period such as from 10:30 p.m. to 5:00 a.m.)?

__ __ __

15. How many times in the last year have you avoided paying for things such as movies, bus or subway rides, and food or computer services?

__ __ __

16. How many times in the last year have you gone into or tried to go into a building to steal something?

__ __ __

17. How many times in the last year have you stolen or tried to steal money or things worth $5 or less?

__ __ __

18. How many times in the last year have you stolen or tried to steal money or things worth between $5 and $50?

__ __ __

19. How many times in the last year have you stolen or tried to steal money or things worth more than $50 but less than $100?

__ __ __

20. How many times in the last year have you stolen or tried to steal money or things worth $100 or more?

__ __ __

21. How many times in the last year have you taken something from a store without paying for it (including events you have already told me about)?

__ __ __

22. How many times in the last year have you snatched someone's purse or wallet or picked someone's pocket?

__ __ __

23. How many times in the last year have you taken something from a car that did not belong to you?

__ __ __

24. How many times in the last year have you knowingly bought, sold, or held stolen goods or tried to do any of these things?

__ __ __

25. How many times in the last year have you gone joyriding (that is, taken a motor vehicle such as a car or motorcycle for a ride or drive without the owner's permission)?

__ __ __

26. How many times in the last year have you stolen or tried to steal a motor vehicle such as a car or motorcycle?

__ __ __

27. How many times in the last year have you used checks illegally or used a slug or fake money to pay for something (including intentional overdrafts)?

__ __ __

28. How many times in the last year have you used or tried to use a credit or bank card without the owner's permission?

__ __ __

29. How many times in the last year have you tried to cheat someone by selling them something that was worthless or not what you said it was?

__ __ __

30. How many times in the last year have you attacked someone with a weapon or with the idea of seriously hurting or killing them?

__ __ __

31. How many times in the last year have you hit someone with the idea of hurting them (other than the events just mentioned)?

__ __ __

32. How many times in the last year have you used a weapon, force, or strong-arm methods to get money or things from people?

__ __ __

33. How many times in the last year have you thrown objects such as rocks or bottles at people (other than events you have already mentioned)?

__ __ __

34. How many times in the last year have you been involved in gang fights?

__ __ __

35. How many times in the last year have you been paid for having sexual relations with someone?

__ __ __

36. How many times in the last year have you physically hurt or threatened to hurt someone to get them to have sex with you?

__ __ __

37. How many times in the last year have you had or tried to have sexual relations with someone against their will (other than events you just mentioned)?

__ __ __

38. How many times in the last year have you sold marijuana or hashish ('pot,' 'grass,' 'hash')?

__ __ __

39. How many times in the last year have you sold hard drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and LSD (total freq. of all hard drug sales, not limited to these three drugs)?

__ __ __

40a. Have you done anything else in the past year that could have gotten you in trouble with the police?

1 [ ] yes

2 [ ] no

40b. You said that you had done other things that could have gotten you in trouble with the police.

a. What kind of things did you do? b. How many times in the past year?

1. ____________________ __ __ __

2. ____________________ __ __ __

3. ____________________ __ __ __

4. ____________________ __ __ __

5. ____________________ __ __ __

Scoring:

Typically researchers use this information to capture which criminal and delinquent activities occurred and the prevalence during the last year.

Scoring can take the form of counting up the number of items endorsed or by calculating the sum of the item frequencies, where the nonendorsed items are scored "0". In addition, types of antisocial and criminal behaviors can be assessed (alcohol and drug use, minor delinquency, serious delinquency, violence, etc.). A Guttman scale may be used to classify the more serious or violent offenses (see Loeber et al., 1998). Researchers should consult with the original sources and later publications for examples of scoring techniques.

If a summary delinquency scale is being prepared the Psychosocial Working Group recommends that items that are not against the law be removed from the scale (e.g., skipped school, cheated on school tests, suspended for bad behavior). In addition, items that overlap, such as stealing something worth $5 to $50 and taking something from the store without paying (shoplifting) should not count as two endorsed items, only one.

Protocol Name from Source:

Not applicable; see source

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

The interviewer must be trained to conduct personal interviews with individuals from the general population. The interviewer must be trained and found to be competent (i.e., tested by an expert) at the completion of personal interviews. The interviewer should be trained to prompt respondents further if a "don’t know" response is provided.

Equipment Needs

These questions can be administered in a computerized or noncomputerized format (i.e., paper-and-pencil instrument). Computer software is necessary to develop computer-assisted instruments. A laptop computer/handheld computer will be needed to administer a computer-assisted questionnaire.

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered or interviewer-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adolescent

Participants:

Ages 11-17 years

Specific Instructions:

Several of the activities are criminal in nature, so it is essential that the interviewer explains that the answers are confidential and that no one other than the research staff will be able to see the answers. If the respondents are thought to be at high risk for involvement in serious delinquent or criminal activities, the researchers may want to obtain a Certificate of Confidentiality (COC). Once obtained, the researcher should inform the respondent that he/she has a COC and explain what the certificate means. COCs are issued by the National Institutes of Health and other U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) agencies to help minimize risks to respondents by adding an additional level of protection for maintaining the confidentiality of private information.

Self-reports of criminal and delinquent activities may have limitations with regard to the ability to recall events, understand the questions, and tell the truth (e.g., exaggeration or concealment). These limitations have been documented by others (Chaiken & Chaiken, 1990; Elliott et al., 1989; Farrington et al., 1996; Hindelang et al., 1981) and should be evaluated by the investigator.

Selection Rationale

These questions have been used for the National Youth Survey (NYS), three large longitudinal surveys (Denver Youth Survey, Pittsburgh Youth Study, and Rochester Youth Development Study), and several other surveys in the past three decades. Self-reports of crime and delinquent activities have been proven to be an effective method of capturing this sensitive information.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Adolescent Crime And Delinquency Assessment Score 3162936 CDE Browser
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) Crime delinquency adolescent proto 62939-4 LOINC
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

Expert Review Panel 4 (ERP 4) reviewed the measures in the Neurology, Psychiatric, and Psychosocial domains.

Guidance from ERP 4 included the following:

· No changes

Source

Huizinga, D., Esbensen, F., & Weiher, A. (1991). Are there multiple paths to delinquency? Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 82, 83-118.

General References

Chaiken, J. M., & Chaiken, M. R. (1990). Drugs and predatory crime. In M. Tonry & J. Q. Wilson (Eds.), Crime and justice, Vol. 13: Drugs and crime (pp. 203-239). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Menard, S. (1989). Multiple problem youth: Delinquency, substance use, and mental health problems. New York: Springer.

Farrington, D. P., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Lober, M., Van Kammen, W., & Schmidt, L. (1996). Self-reported delinquency and a combined delinquency seriousness scale based on boys, mothers, and teachers: Concurrent and predictive validity for African Americans and Caucasians. Criminology, 34, 501-525.

Huizinga, D., & Elliott, D. S. (1986). Re-assessing the reliability and validity of self-reported delinquency measures. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 2(4), 293-327.

Huizinga, D., & Esbensen, F. (1990). Scales and measures of the Denver Youth Survey, 1990. Boulder, CO: Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado.

Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Kammen, W. B. (1998). Antisocial behavior and mental health problems: Explanatory factors in childhood and adolescence. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Moffitt, T. E. (2005). Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behaviors: Evidence from behavioral-genetic research. Advances in Genetics, 55, 41-104.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health. (1976). National Youth Survey, Wave 1, 1976. Bethesda, MD: Author.

Protocol ID:

181201

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX181201_Attacked_Someone PX181201300000 How many times in the last year have you attacked someone with a weapon or with the idea of seriously hurting or killing them? 4 N/A
PX181201_Avoided_Paying PX181201150000 How many times in the last year have you avoided paying for things such as movies, bus or subway rides, and food or computer services? 4 N/A
PX181201_Bank_Cards PX181201280000 How many times in the last year have you used or tried to use a credit or bank cards without the owner's permission? 4 N/A
PX181201_Begged_For_Money PX181201090000 How many times in the last year have you begged for money or things from strangers? 4 N/A
PX181201_Broken_City_Curfew_Laws PX181201140000 How many times in the last year have you broken city curfew laws (for example, been in a public place including out in the street without a parent or other adult during the curfew period? 4 N/A
PX181201_Carried_Hidden_Weapon PX181201070000 How many times in the last year have you carried a hidden weapon? 4 N/A
PX181201_Cheated PX181201050000 How many times in the last year have you cheated on school tests? 4 N/A
PX181201_Cheat_Someone PX181201290000 How many times in the last year have you tried to cheat someone by selling them something that was worthless or not what you said it was? 4 N/A
PX181201_Destroyed_Property PX181201120000 How many times in the last year have you purposely damaged or destroyed property that did not belong to you (for example, breaking, cutting or marking up something)? 4 N/A
PX181201_Fake_Money PX181201270000 How many times in the last year have you used checks illegally or used a slug or fake money to pay for something (including intentional overdrafts)? 4 N/A
PX181201_Forced_Sex PX181201360000 How many times in the last year have you physically hurt or threatened to hurt someone to get them to have sex with you? 4 N/A
PX181201_Gang_Fights PX181201340000 How many times in the last year have you been involved in gang fights? 4 N/A
PX181201_Hitchhiked PX181201060000 How many times in the last year have you hitchhiked where it was illegal to do so? 4 N/A
PX181201_Hit_Someone PX181201310000 How many times in the last year have you hit someone with the idea of hurting them (other than the events just mentioned)? 4 N/A
PX181201_Joyriding PX181201250000 How many times in the last year have you gone joyriding (that is, taken a motor vehicle such as a car or motorcycle for a ride or drive without the owner's permission)? 4 N/A
PX181201_Lied_About_Age PX181201040000 How many times in the last year have you lied about your age to get into some place or to buy something (for example, lying about your age to get into a movie or to buy alcohol)? 4 N/A
PX181201_Loud_Rowdy_Unruly PX181201080000 How many times in the last year have you been loud, rowdy, or unruly in a public place so that people complained about it or you got in trouble? 4 N/A
PX181201_Obscene_Telephone_Calls PX181201100000 How many times in the last year have you made obscene telephone calls such as calling someone and saying dirty things? 4 N/A
PX181201_Other_Forced_Sex PX181201370000 How many times in the last year have you had or tried to have sexual relations with someone against their will (other than events you just mentioned)? 4 N/A
PX181201_Paid_For_Sex PX181201350000 How many times in the last year have you been paid for having sexual relations with someone? 4 N/A
PX181201_Publicly_Drunk PX181201110000 How many times in the last year have you been drunk in a public place? 4 N/A
PX181201_Run_Away_From_Home PX181201010000 How many times in the last year have you run away from home? 4 N/A
PX181201_Set_Fire PX181201130000 How many times in the last year have you purposely set fire to a house, building, car, or other property or tried to do so? 4 N/A
PX181201_Shoplift PX181201210000 How many times in the last year have you taken something from a store without paying for it (including events you have already told me about)? 4 N/A
PX181201_Skipped_Classes_School PX181201020000 How many times in the last year have you skipped (classes/school) without an excuse? 4 N/A
PX181201_Sold_Hard_Drugs PX181201390000 How many times in the last year have you sold hard drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and LSD (total freq. of all hard drug sales, not limited to these three drugs)? 4 N/A
PX181201_Sold_Marijuana PX181201380000 How many times in the last year have you sold marijuana or hashish ('pot,' 'grass,' 'hash')? 4 N/A
PX181201_Steal_100_Dollars PX181201190000 How many times in the last year have you stolen or tried to steal money or things worth more than $50 but less than $100? 4 N/A
PX181201_Steal_50_Dollars PX181201180000 How many times in the last year have you stolen or tried to steal money or things worth between $5 and $50? 4 N/A
PX181201_Steal_5Dollars PX181201170000 How many times in the last year have you stolen or tried to steal money or things worth $5 or less? 4 N/A
PX181201_Steal_Car PX181201260000 How many times in the last year have you stolen or tried to steal a motor vehicle such as a car or motorcycle? 4 N/A
PX181201_Steal_From_Building PX181201160000 How many times in the last year have you gone into or tried to go into a building to steal something? 4 N/A
PX181201_Steal_From_Car PX181201230000 How many times in the last year have you taken something from a car that did not belong to you? 4 N/A
PX181201_Steal_MoreThan_100_Dollars PX181201200000 How many times in the last year have you stolen or tried to steal money or things worth $100 or more? 4 N/A
PX181201_Stolen_Goods PX181201240000 How many times in the last year have you knowingly bought, sold or held stolen goods or tried to do any of these things? 4 N/A
PX181201_Stolen_Purse_Wallet PX181201220000 How many times in the last year have you snatched someone's purse or wallet or picked someone's pocket? 4 N/A
PX181201_Strongarm_Money PX181201320000 How many times in the last year have you used a weapon, force, or strong-arm methods to get money or things from people? 4 N/A
PX181201_Suspended_Sent_Home PX181201030000 How many times in the last year have you been suspended or sent home from school for bad behavior? 4 N/A
PX181201_Thrown_Objects PX181201330000 How many times in the last year have you thrown objects such as rocks or bottles at people (other than events you have already mentioned)? 4 N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police PX181201400100 Have you done anything else in the past year that could have gotten you in trouble with the police? 4 N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Frequency_1 PX181201400202 How many times in the past year? 4 N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Frequency_2 PX181201400302 How many times in the past year? 4 N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Frequency_3 PX181201400402 How many times in the past year? 4 N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Frequency_4 PX181201400502 How many times in the past year? 4 N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Frequency_5 PX181201400602 How many times in the past year? 4 N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Specify_1 PX181201400201 What kind of things did you do? 4 N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Specify_2 PX181201400301 What kind of things did you do? 4 N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Specify_3 PX181201400401 What kind of things did you do? 4 N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Specify_4 PX181201400501 What kind of things did you do? 4 N/A
PX181201_Trouble_With_Police_Specify_5 PX181201400601 What kind of things did you do? 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Crime and Delinquency

Release Date:

December 13, 2010

Definition

This measure is a series of questions used to assess criminal and delinquent behavior in the past year.

Purpose

Information about a person’s criminal and delinquent behaviors has been used in a number of studies to assess development, and more recent studies have looked at the ways in which certain genotypes interact with childhood adversities to predict violent and antisocial behaviors. In addition, delinquent behaviors make up an important part of the criteria for conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder diagnoses (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Association) and include drug and alcohol problems associated with the illegal use of alcohol and drugs.

Keywords

Psychosocial, crime, delinquent, criminal, delinquency, behavior problems, conduct disorder, externalizing behavior