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Protocol - Parenting Style - Child

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Description

The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire is a 42-item questionnaire that measures five dimensions of parenting that can affect the development of children. Using a Likert scale of Never to Always, the answers can be scored to assess parental involvement, positive parenting, monitoring/supervision, discipline, and corporal punishment.

Specific Instructions

The University of New Orleans provides the tests and measures at: http://fs.uno.edu/pfrick/APQ.html. Credit must be given to the developers.

Dr. Paul Frick requests that copies of any publications using the APQ are sent to him at pfrick@uno.edu.

The WG acknowledges that there are also versions (parent report and child report) developed for use in telephone interviews.

The PhenX working group suggests that it would be helpful to record the age of the child and that If administered as an interview, the interviewer will probably want to create some kind of visual aid that the child can use to point to their response for each item because a child without enough reading comprehension to fill out the form on their own might have difficulty keeping the Likert scale in their head.

Protocol

Instructions: The following are a number of statements about your family. Please rate each item as to how often it TYPICALLY occurs in your home. The possible answers are Never (1), Almost Never (2), Sometimes (3), Often (4), Always (5). If your dad or mom is not currently living at home with you, then skip the questions about that person.

 

Never

Almost Never

Sometimes

Often

Always

  1. You have a friendly talk with your mom.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

   A. How about your dad?

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents tell you that you are doing a good job.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents threaten to punish you and then do not do it.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your mom helps with some of your special activities (such as sports, boy/girl scouts, church youth groups).

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

   A. How about your dad?

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents reward or give something extra to you for behaving well.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You fail to leave a note or let your parents know where you are going.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You play games or do other fun things with your mom.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

   A. How about your dad?

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You talk your parents out of punishing you after you have done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your mom asks you about your day in school.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

   A. How about your dad?

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You stay out in the evening past the time you are supposed to be home.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your mom helps you with your homework.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

   A. How about your dad?

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents give up trying to get you to obey them because it’s too much trouble.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents compliment you when you have done something well.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your mom asks you what your plans are for the coming day.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

   A. How about your dad?

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your mom drives you to a special activity.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

   A. How about your dad?

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents praise you for behaving well.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents do not know the friends you are with.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents hug and kiss you when you have done something well.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You go out without a set time to be home.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your mom talks to you about your friends.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

   A. How about your dad?

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You go out after dark without an adult with you.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents let you out of a punishment early (like lift restrictions earlier than they originally said.)

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You help plan family activities.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents get so busy that they forget where you are and what you are doing.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents do not punish you when you have done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your mom goes to a meeting at school, like a PTA meeting or parent/teacher conference.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

   A. How about your dad?

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents tell you that they like it when you help out around the house.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You stay out later than you are supposed to and your parents don’t know it.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents leave the house and don’t tell you where they are going.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You come home from school more than an hour past the time your parents expect you to be home.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. The punishment your parents give depends on their mood.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You are at home without an adult being with you.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents spank you with their hand when you have done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents ignore you when you are misbehaving.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents slap you when you have done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents take away a privilege or money from you as a punishment.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents send you to your room as punishment.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents hit you with a belt, switch, or other object when you have done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents yell or scream at you when you have done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents calmly explain to you why your behavior was wrong when you misbehave.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents use time out (make you sit or stand in a corner) as a punishment.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your parents give you extra chores as a punishment.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

 Scoring for Child Form:

The items on the child form are categorized into five subscales that are reflective of the parent subscales:

  • Involvement: 1, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 20, 23, 26 (there are two parts to each of these questions—one for mother involvement and one for father involvement)
  • Positive Parenting: 2, 5, 13, 16, 18, 27
  • Poor Monitoring/Supervision: 6, 10, 17, 19, 21, 24, 28, 29, 30, 32
  • Inconsistent Discipline: 3, 8, 12, 22, 25, 31
  • Corporal Punishment: 33, 35, 39
  • No reverse coding necessary.
  • Sum all items in the scale to obtain a total scale score (you may subtract this score by the number of items in the subscale so that the score range begins at zero).
  • Other Discipline Practices is not a scale, but provides information on an item by item basis. Numbers for these items are: 34, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42

 

Availability

Available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Lifestage

Child, Adolescent

Participants

Children ages 6-18 years

Selection Rationale

The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire was selected because the scale has been used in multiple research articles looking at parenting behaviors. The protocol is a validated and highly utilized scale. The PhenX working group recommends that validated observational methods should be used when possible (especially for very young children) but recognize that such methods are time consuming, costly, and logistically difficult, so offer this validated questionnaire to provide some measure of caregiving quality.

Language

Chinese, Dutch, English, German, Norwegian, Spanish

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
caDSR Common Data Elements (CDE) Pediatric Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) Child Form Assessment Scale 7051603 CDE Browser
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

Not applicable

Protocol Name from Source

Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) Child Form

Source

Shelton KK, Frick, PJ & Wootton J. (1996.). Assessment of Parenting Practices of Families of Elementary School-Age Children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25 (3), 317-329.

General References

Gross, T. J., Fleming, C. B., Alex Mason, W., & Haggerty, K. P. (2017). Alabama Parenting Questionnaire–9: Longitudinal Measurement Invariance Across Parents and Youth During the Transition to High School. Assessment, 24(5), 646–659.

Protocol ID

300801

Variables
Export Variables
Variable Name Variable IDVariable DescriptiondbGaP Mapping
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Come_Home_School_Late
PX300801300000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You come home from school more than an hour past the time your parents expect you to be home. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Dad_Asks_About_Plans
PX300801140200 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. How about your dad? show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Dad_Asks_About_School
PX300801090200 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. How about your dad? show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Dad_Drives_To_Activities
PX300801150200 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. How about your dad? show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Dad_Fun_Things
PX300801070200 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. How about your dad? show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Dad_Helps_Homework
PX300801110200 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. How about your dad? show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Dad_Helps_Special_Activities
PX300801040200 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. How about your dad? show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Dad_School_Meeting
PX300801260200 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. How about your dad? show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Dad_Talks_About_Friends
PX300801200200 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. How about your dad? show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Fail_Leave_Note
PX300801060000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You fail to leave a note or let your parents know where you are going. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Friendly_Talk_Dad
PX300801010200 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. How about your dad? show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Friendly_Talk_Mom
PX300801010100 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You have a friendly talk with your mom. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Go_OutWithout_Curfew
PX300801190000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You go out without a set time to be home. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Help_Plan_Family_Activities
PX300801230000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You help plan family activities. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Home_Without_Adult
PX300801320000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You are at home without an adult being with you. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Mom_Asks_About_Plans
PX300801140100 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your mom asks you what your plans are for the coming day. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Mom_Asks_About_School
PX300801090100 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your mom asks you about your day in school. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Mom_Drives_To_Activities
PX300801150100 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your mom drives you to a special activity. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Mom_Fun_Things
PX300801070100 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You play games or do other fun things with your mom. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Mom_Helps_Homework
PX300801110100 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your mom helps you with your homework. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Mom_Helps_Special_Activities
PX300801040100 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your mom helps with some of your special activities (such as sports, boy/girl scouts, church youth groups). show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Mom_School_Meeting
PX300801260100 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your mom goes to a meeting at school, like a PTA meeting or parent/teacher conference. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Mom_Talks_About_Friends
PX300801200100 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your mom talks to you about your friends. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Out_After_Dark_Without_Adult
PX300801210000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You go out after dark without an adult with you. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Out_Late_Parents_DontKnow
PX300801280000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You stay out later than you are supposed to and your parents don’t know it. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Out_Past_Curfew
PX300801100000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You stay out in the evening past the time you are supposed to be home. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Calmly_Explain
PX300801400000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents calmly explain to you why your behavior was wrong when you misbehave. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Compliment_You
PX300801130000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents compliment you when you have done something well. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_DoNot_Know_Friends
PX300801170000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents do not know the friends you are with. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_DoNot_Punish
PX300801250000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents do not punish you when you have done something wrong. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Forget_You
PX300801240000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents get so busy that they forget where you are and what you are doing. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Give_Chores_Punishment
PX300801420000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents give you extra chores as a punishment. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Give_Up
PX300801120000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents give up trying to get you to obey them because it’s too much trouble. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Hit_Belt_Switch
PX300801380000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents hit you with a belt, switch, or other object when you have done something wrong. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Hug_And_KissYou
PX300801180000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents hug and kiss you when you have done something well. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Ignore_Misbehavior
PX300801340000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents ignore you when you are misbehaving. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Leave_House
PX300801290000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents leave the house and don’t tell you where they are going. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Lift_Restrictions_Early
PX300801220000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents let you out of a punishment early (like lift restrictions earlier than they originally said.) show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Like_Help
PX300801270000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents tell you that they like it when you help out around the house. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Praise_You
PX300801160000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents praise you for behaving well. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Reward
PX300801050000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents reward or give something extra to you for behaving well. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Send_You_To_Room
PX300801370000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents send you to your room as punishment. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Slap_You
PX300801350000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents slap you when you have done something wrong. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Spank_With_Hand
PX300801330000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents spank you with their hand when you have done something wrong. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Take_Away_Privilege
PX300801360000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents take away a privilege or money from you as a punishment. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Tell_You_Good_Job
PX300801020000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents tell you that you are doing a good job. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Threaten_Punishment
PX300801030000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents threaten to punish you and then do not do it. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Use_Time_Out
PX300801410000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents use time out (make you sit or stand in a corner) as a punishment. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Parents_Yell_Scream
PX300801390000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your parents yell or scream at you when you have done something wrong. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Punishment_Parent_Mood
PX300801310000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. The punishment your parents give depends on their mood. show less
N/A
PX300801_Parenting_Style_Child_Talk_Parents_Out_Of_Punishment
PX300801080000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You talk your parents out of punishing you after you have done something wrong. show less
N/A
Pediatric Development
Measure Name

Parenting Style

Release Date

December 11, 2019

Definition

The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire is a 42-item questionnaire that measures five dimensions of parenting that can affect the development of children.

Purpose

How parents communicate and interact with their children can impact the child’s development.

Keywords

age, childcare, parenting, parenting styles, parental involvement, punishment, Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ), Pediatric Development

Measure Protocols
Protocol ID Protocol Name
300801 Parenting Style - Child
300802 Parenting Style - Parent
Publications

There are no publications listed for this protocol.