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Protocol - Parenting Style - Parent

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Description:

The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire is a 42-item questionnaire that measures five dimensions of parenting that can affect the development of children. Using a Likert scale of Never to Always, the answers can be scored to assess parental involvement, positive parenting, monitoring/supervision, discipline, and corporal punishment.

Specific Instructions:

The University of New Orleans provides the tests and measures at: http://fs.uno.edu/pfrick/APQ.html Credit must be given to the developers.

Dr. Paul Frick requests that copies of any publications using the APQ are sent to him at pfrick@uno.edu.

When a parent is not the primary caregiver, the primary caregiver should complete and indicate their relationship/role in the initial questions of the form.

The WG acknowledges that there are also versions (parent report and child report) developed for use in telephone interviews.

The PhenX working group suggests that it would be helpful to record the age of the child.

Protocol:

Parent Completing Form

[ ] Mother

[ ] Father

[ ] Other:_________________

 

Instructions: The following are a number of statements about your family. Please rate each item as to how often it TYPICALLY occurs in your home. The possible answers are Never (1), Almost Never (2), Sometimes (3), Often (4), Always (5). PLEASE ANSWER ALL ITEMS.

 

 

Never

Almost Never

Sometimes

Often

Always

  1. You have a friendly talk with your child.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You let your child know when he/she is doing a good job with something.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You threaten to punish your child and then do not actually punish him/her.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You volunteer to help with special activities that your child is involved in (such as sports, boy/girl scouts, church youth groups).

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You reward or give something extra to your child for obeying you or behaving well.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child fails to leave a note or let you know where he/she is going.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You play games or do other fun things with your child.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child talks you out of being punished after he/she has done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You ask your child about his/her day in school.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child stays out in the evening past the time he/she is supposed to be home.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You help your child with his/her homework.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You feel that getting your child to obey you is more trouble than it’s worth.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You compliment your child when he/she does something well.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You ask your child what his/her plans are for the coming day.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You drive your child to a special activity.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You praise your child if he/she behaves well.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child is out with friends you don’t know.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You hug or kiss your child when he/she does something well.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child goes out without a set time to be home.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You talk to your child about his/her friends.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child is out after dark without an adult with him/her.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You let your child out of a punishment early (like lift restrictions earlier than you originally said).

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child helps plan family activities.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You get so busy that you forget where your child is and what he/she is doing.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child is not punished when he/she has done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You attend PTA meetings, parent/teacher conferences, or other meetings at your child’s school.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You tell your child that you like it when he/she helps out around the house.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You don’t check that your child comes home at the time she/he was supposed to.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You don’t tell your child where you are going.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child comes home from school more than an hour past the time you expect him/her.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. The punishment you give your child depends on your mood.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child is at home without adult supervision.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You spank your child with your hand when he/she has done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You ignore your child when he/she is misbehaving.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You slap your child when he/she has done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You take away privileges or money from your child as a punishment.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You send your child to his/her room as a punishment.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You hit your child with a belt, switch, or other object when he/she has done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You yell or scream at your child when he/she has done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You calmly explain to your child why his/her behavior was wrong when he/she misbehaves.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You use time out (make him/her sit or stand in a corner) as a punishment.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You give your child extra chores as a punishment.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

Scoring for Parent Form:

  • The items on the adult form are categorized into five subscales as follows:

o Involvement: 1, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 20, 23, 26

o Positive Parenting: 2, 5, 13, 16, 18, 27

o Poor Monitoring/Supervision: 6, 10, 17, 19, 21, 24, 28, 29, 30, 32

o Inconsistent Discipline: 3, 8, 12, 22, 25, 31

o Corporal Punishment: 33, 35, 39

  • No reverse coding necessary.
  • Sum all items in the scale to obtain a total scale score. (You may subtract this score by the number of items in the subscale so that the score range begins at zero.)
  • Other Discipline Practices is not a scale, but provides information on an item-by-item basis. Numbers for these items are: 34, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42
Protocol Name from Source:

Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) Parent Form

Availability:

Available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Child, Adolescent, Adult

Participants:

Parents of children ages 6-18 years

Selection Rationale

The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire was selected because the scale has been used in multiple research articles examining parenting behaviors. The protocol is a validated and highly utilized scale.

The PhenX working group recommends that validated observational methods should be used when possible (especially for very young children) but recognize that such methods are time consuming, costly, and logistically difficult, so offer this validated questionnaire to provide some measure of caregiving quality.

Language

Chinese, Dutch, English, German, Norwegian, Spanish

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Pediatric Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) Parent Form Assessment Scale 7051615 CDE Browser
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

Not applicable

Source

Shelton KK, Frick, PJ & Wootton J. (1996.). Assessment of Parenting Practices of Families of Elementary School-Age Children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25 (3), 317-329.

General References

Gross, T. J., Fleming, C. B., Alex Mason, W., & Haggerty, K. P. (2017). Alabama Parenting Questionnaire–9: Longitudinal Measurement Invariance Across Parents and Youth During the Transition to High School. Assessment, 24(5), 646–659.

Protocol ID:

300802

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable Name Variable IDVariable DescriptiondbGaP Mapping
Pediatric Development
Measure Name:

Parenting Style

Release Date:

December 11, 2019

Definition

The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire is a 42-item questionnaire that measures five dimensions of parenting that can affect the development of children.

Purpose

How parents communicate and interact with their children can impact the child’s development.

Keywords

age, childcare, parenting, parenting styles, parental involvement, punishment, Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ), Pediatric Development