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Protocol - Parenting Style - Parent

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Description

The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire is a 42-item questionnaire that measures five dimensions of parenting that can affect the development of children. Using a Likert scale of Never to Always, the answers can be scored to assess parental involvement, positive parenting, monitoring/supervision, discipline, and corporal punishment.

Specific Instructions

The University of New Orleans provides the tests and measures at: http://fs.uno.edu/pfrick/APQ.html Credit must be given to the developers.

Dr. Paul Frick requests that copies of any publications using the APQ are sent to him at pfrick@uno.edu.

When a parent is not the primary caregiver, the primary caregiver should complete and indicate their relationship/role in the initial questions of the form.

The WG acknowledges that there are also versions (parent report and child report) developed for use in telephone interviews.

The PhenX working group suggests that it would be helpful to record the age of the child.

Protocol

Parent Completing Form

[ ] Mother

[ ] Father

[ ] Other:_________________

 

Instructions: The following are a number of statements about your family. Please rate each item as to how often it TYPICALLY occurs in your home. The possible answers are Never (1), Almost Never (2), Sometimes (3), Often (4), Always (5). PLEASE ANSWER ALL ITEMS.

 

 

Never

Almost Never

Sometimes

Often

Always

  1. You have a friendly talk with your child.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You let your child know when he/she is doing a good job with something.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You threaten to punish your child and then do not actually punish him/her.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You volunteer to help with special activities that your child is involved in (such as sports, boy/girl scouts, church youth groups).

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You reward or give something extra to your child for obeying you or behaving well.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child fails to leave a note or let you know where he/she is going.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You play games or do other fun things with your child.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child talks you out of being punished after he/she has done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You ask your child about his/her day in school.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child stays out in the evening past the time he/she is supposed to be home.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You help your child with his/her homework.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You feel that getting your child to obey you is more trouble than it’s worth.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You compliment your child when he/she does something well.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You ask your child what his/her plans are for the coming day.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You drive your child to a special activity.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You praise your child if he/she behaves well.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child is out with friends you don’t know.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You hug or kiss your child when he/she does something well.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child goes out without a set time to be home.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You talk to your child about his/her friends.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child is out after dark without an adult with him/her.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You let your child out of a punishment early (like lift restrictions earlier than you originally said).

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child helps plan family activities.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You get so busy that you forget where your child is and what he/she is doing.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child is not punished when he/she has done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You attend PTA meetings, parent/teacher conferences, or other meetings at your child’s school.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You tell your child that you like it when he/she helps out around the house.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You don’t check that your child comes home at the time she/he was supposed to.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You don’t tell your child where you are going.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child comes home from school more than an hour past the time you expect him/her.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. The punishment you give your child depends on your mood.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. Your child is at home without adult supervision.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You spank your child with your hand when he/she has done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You ignore your child when he/she is misbehaving.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You slap your child when he/she has done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You take away privileges or money from your child as a punishment.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You send your child to his/her room as a punishment.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You hit your child with a belt, switch, or other object when he/she has done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You yell or scream at your child when he/she has done something wrong.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You calmly explain to your child why his/her behavior was wrong when he/she misbehaves.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You use time out (make him/her sit or stand in a corner) as a punishment.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

  1. You give your child extra chores as a punishment.

[ ] 1

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

Scoring for Parent Form:

  • The items on the adult form are categorized into five subscales as follows:

o Involvement: 1, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 20, 23, 26

o Positive Parenting: 2, 5, 13, 16, 18, 27

o Poor Monitoring/Supervision: 6, 10, 17, 19, 21, 24, 28, 29, 30, 32

o Inconsistent Discipline: 3, 8, 12, 22, 25, 31

o Corporal Punishment: 33, 35, 39

  • No reverse coding necessary.
  • Sum all items in the scale to obtain a total scale score. (You may subtract this score by the number of items in the subscale so that the score range begins at zero.)
  • Other Discipline Practices is not a scale, but provides information on an item-by-item basis. Numbers for these items are: 34, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42
Availability

Available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Lifestage

Child, Adolescent, Adult

Participants

Parents of children ages 6-18 years

Selection Rationale

The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire was selected because the scale has been used in multiple research articles examining parenting behaviors. The protocol is a validated and highly utilized scale.

The PhenX working group recommends that validated observational methods should be used when possible (especially for very young children) but recognize that such methods are time consuming, costly, and logistically difficult, so offer this validated questionnaire to provide some measure of caregiving quality.

Language

Chinese, Dutch, English, German, Norwegian, Spanish

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
caDSR Common Data Elements (CDE) Pediatric Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) Parent Form Assessment Scale 7051615 CDE Browser
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

Not applicable

Protocol Name from Source

Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) Parent Form

Source

Shelton KK, Frick, PJ & Wootton J. (1996.). Assessment of Parenting Practices of Families of Elementary School-Age Children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25 (3), 317-329.

General References

Gross, T. J., Fleming, C. B., Alex Mason, W., & Haggerty, K. P. (2017). Alabama Parenting Questionnaire–9: Longitudinal Measurement Invariance Across Parents and Youth During the Transition to High School. Assessment, 24(5), 646–659.

Protocol ID

300802

Variables
Export Variables
Variable Name Variable IDVariable DescriptiondbGaP Mapping
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Ask_Plans
PX300802140000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You ask your child what his/her plans are for the coming day. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Ask_School
PX300802090000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You ask your child about his/her day in school. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Attend_School_Meeting
PX300802260000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You attend PTA meetings, parent/teacher conferences, or other meetings at your child’s school. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Come_Home_School_Late
PX300802300000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your child comes home from school more than an hour past the time you expect him/her. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Compliment_Child
PX300802130000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You compliment your child when he/she does something well. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Drives_Activities
PX300802150000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You drive your child to a special activity. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Fail_Leave_Note
PX300802060000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your child fails to leave a note or let you know where he/she is going. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Forget_What_Child_Doing
PX300802240000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You get so busy that you forget where your child is and what he/she is doing. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Friendly_Talk
PX300802010000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You have a friendly talk with your child. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Give_Up_Obey
PX300802120000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You feel that getting your child to obey you is more trouble than it’s worth. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Go_Out_Without_Curfew
PX300802190000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your child goes out without a set time to be home. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Help_Plan_Family_Activities
PX300802230000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your child helps plan family activities. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Help_With_Homework
PX300802110000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You help your child with his/her homework. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Home_Without_Adult
PX300802320000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your child is at home without adult supervision. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Hug_And_Kiss_Child
PX300802180000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You hug or kiss your child when he/she does something well. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Know_Friends
PX300802170000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your child is out with friends you don’t know. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Know_Good_Job
PX300802020000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You let your child know when he/she is doing a good job with something. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Lift_Restrictions_Early
PX300802220000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You let your child out of a punishment early (like lift restrictions earlier than you originally said). show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Out_After_Dark_Without_Adult
PX300802210000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your child is out after dark without an adult with him/her. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Out_Late_Parents_DontKnow
PX300802280000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You don’t check that your child comes home at the time she/he was supposed to. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Out_Past_Curfew
PX300802100000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your child stays out in the evening past the time he/she is supposed to be home. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Parents_Calmly_Explain
PX300802400000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You calmly explain to your child why his/her behavior was wrong when he/she misbehaves. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Parents_Child
PX300802160000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You praise your child if he/she behaves well. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Parents_Give_Chores_Punishment
PX300802420000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You give your child extra chores as a punishment. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Parents_Hit_Belt_Switch
PX300802380000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You hit your child with a belt, switch, or other object when he/she has done something wrong. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Parents_Ignore_Misbehavior
PX300802340000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You ignore your child when he/she is misbehaving. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Parents_Leave_House
PX300802290000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You don’t tell your child where you are going. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Parents_Send_Child_To_Room
PX300802370000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You send your child to his/her room as a punishment. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Parents_Slap_Child
PX300802350000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You slap your child when he/she has done something wrong. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Parents_Spank_With_Hand
PX300802330000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You spank your child with your hand when he/she has done something wrong. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Parents_Take_Away_Privilege
PX300802360000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You take away privileges or money from your child as a punishment. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Parents_Use_Time_Out
PX300802410000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You use time out (make him/her sit or stand in a corner) as a punishment. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Parents_Yell_Scream
PX300802390000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You yell or scream at your child when he/she has done something wrong. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Parent_Completing
PX300802000100 Parent Completing Form N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Parent_Completing_Other
PX300802000200 Parent Completing Form: Other, specify N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Play_Games_Fun_Things
PX300802070000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You play games or do other fun things with your child. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Punish
PX300802250000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your child is not punished when he/she has done something wrong. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Punishment_Parent_Mood
PX300802310000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. The punishment you give your child depends on your mood. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Reward_Obeying
PX300802050000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You reward or give something extra to your child for obeying you or behaving well. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Talked_Out_Of_Punishment
PX300802080000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. Your child talks you out of being punished after he/she has done something wrong. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Talk_Friends
PX300802200000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You talk to your child about his/her friends. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Tell_Child_Like_Help
PX300802270000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You tell your child that you like it when he/she helps out around the house. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Threaten_Punishment
PX300802030000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You threaten to punish your child and then do not actually punish him/her. show less
N/A
PX300802_Parenting_Style_Parent_Volunteer_Special_Activities
PX300802040000 Please rate each item as to how often it more
TYPICALLY occurs in your home. You volunteer to help with special activities that your child is involved in (such as sports, boy/girl scouts, church youth groups). show less
N/A
Pediatric Development
Measure Name

Parenting Style

Release Date

December 11, 2019

Definition

The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire is a 42-item questionnaire that measures five dimensions of parenting that can affect the development of children.

Purpose

How parents communicate and interact with their children can impact the child’s development.

Keywords

age, childcare, parenting, parenting styles, parental involvement, punishment, Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ), Pediatric Development

Measure Protocols
Protocol ID Protocol Name
300801 Parenting Style - Child
300802 Parenting Style - Parent
Publications

There are no publications listed for this protocol.