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Protocol - Percent Energy from Fat

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Description:

These self-administered questions for adults can be used to inquire about the frequency of an individual’s consumption of foods predictive of percentage energy from fat. There are eight response categories, ranging from "Never" to "2 or More Times per Day," arrayed on the response card for the respondent to use in assessing food patterns.

Protocol:

1. Think about your eating habits over the past 12 months. About how often did you eat or drink each of the following foods? Remember breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, and eating out. Choose only one answer for each food.

TYPE OF FOOD

Never

Less than Once Per Month

1-3 Times Per Month

1-2 Times Per Week

3-4 Times Per Week

5-6 Times Per Week

1 Time Per Day

2 or More Times Per Day

Cold cereal

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

Skim milk, on cereal or to drink

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

Eggs, fried or scrambled in margarine, butter, or oil

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

Sausage or bacon, regular-fat

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

Margarine or butter on bread, rolls, pancakes

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

Orange juice or grapefruit juice

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

Fruit (not juices)

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

Beef or pork hot dogs, regular-fat

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

Cheese or cheese spread, regular-fat

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

French fries, home fries, or hash brown potatoes

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

Margarine or butter on vegetables, including potatoes

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

Mayonnaise, regular-fat

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

Salad dressings, regular-fat

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

Rice

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

Margarine, butter, or oil on rice or pasta

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

О

2. Over the past 12 months, when you prepared foods with margarine or ate margarine, how often did you use reduced-fat margarine?

О

О

О

О

О

О

DIDN’T USE MARGARINE

Almost never

About 1/4 of the time

About 1/2 of the time

About 3/4 of the time

Almost always or always

3. Overall, when you think about the foods you ate over the past 12 months, would you say your diet was high, medium, or low in fat?

О

О

О

High

Medium

Low

Scoring Procedures The following procedures are used to convert an individual’s responses to an estimate of that individual’s percentage energy from fat:

1. The frequency reported categorically on the questionnaire is converted to the number of times consumed per day as shown below. In general, the midpoint of the frequency range was used.

Frequency Response

Times Per Day

Never

0.0

Less than once a month

0.018

1-3 times per month

0.066

1-2 times per week

0.214

3-4 times per week

0.499

5-6 times per week

0.784

1 time per day

1.0

2 or more times per day

2.0

2. The age- and gender-specific portion sizes for each food (see below) are multiplied by the frequency calculated in Step 1. These portion sizes were estimated from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) 1994-96.

Median Serving Sizes (g)

Age

Skim Milk

Bacon

Cold Cereal

Fruit

Mayo

Dressing

Males

18-27

366.666667

25.000000

74.666667

131.750000

13.750000

36.720000

28-37

250.000000

40.250000

61.500000

128.000000

13.750000

44.060000

38-47

250.000000

32.000000

57.500000

123.200000

13.750000

31.250000

48-57

245.000000

32.000000

56.000000

127.500000

13.750000

31.250000

58-67

214.375000

27.000000

46.000000

122.000000

9.150000

29.400000

68-77

198.937500

26.000000

39.000000

118.000000

13.750000

29.400000

78+

160.725000

24.000000

33.000000

114.250000

4.580000

29.380000

Females

18-27

245.000000

26.000000

50.000000

118.000000

13.750000

30.630000

28-37

245.000000

25.000000

49.500000

118.000000

6.880000

29.400000

38-47

244.800000

24.000000

44.000000

118.000000

9.170000

29.400000

48-57

229.690000

24.000000

43.500000

118.000000

9.183333

29.400000

58-67

196.000000

18.000000

33.000000

118.000000

6.110000

29.380000

68-77

183.750000

19.500000

33.000000

112.427143

10.310000

29.380000

78+

183.750000

16.000000

33.500000

109.000000

4.580000

22.030000

Median Serving Sizes (g)

Age

Eggs

Fruit Juice

Hot Dogs

Cheese

French Fries

Margarine

Rice

Males

18-27

92.000000

373.200000

114.000000

33.360000

112.500000

9.540000

213.625000

28-37

92.000000

311.000000

85.500000

28.350000

114.000000

9.540000

195.000000

38-47

92.000000

249.000000

88.000000

28.350000

100.000000

9.460000

166.000000

48-57

92.000000

249.000000

114.000000

28.350000

100.000000

9.200000

165.000000

58-67

92.000000

248.000000

57.000000

28.350000

85.500000

7.883333

165.000000

68-77

80.000000

186.750000

57.000000

24.000000

85.500000

7.100000

158.000000

78+

80.000000

186.750000

57.000000

22.880000

97.000000

7.000000

158.000000

Females

18-27

80.000000

249.000000

57.000000

26.175000

79.500000

7.000000

158.000000

28-37

80.000000

248.800000

57.000000

21.000000

70.000000

6.290000

158.000000

38-47

69.000000

248.800000

57.000000

22.500000

70.000000

5.925000

158.000000

48-57

80.000000

217.875000

114.000000

22.063333

70.000000

7.095000

155.000000

58-67

68.000000

186.750000

57.000000

24.000000

66.000000

5.296667

122.250000

68-77

56.000000

186.600000

57.000000

21.000000

70.000000

5.320000

158.000000

78+

46.000000

186.750000

57.000000

25.800000

64.000000

4.865000

83.000000

3. The proportion of the margarine and butter added to foods that was regular fat is estimated. First, the frequency of the margarine and butter added is calculated. This is the sum of the frequencies for the three questions in question 1 for margarine and butter added to food (on bread, rolls, pancakes; vegetables including potatoes; and rice or pasta). totfat = sum (marg on bread, marg on veg, marg on rice) Then the information in the instrument’s second question, "how often was reduced-fat margarine used?" was applied, using the following equivalents.

Response to Question 2

Value of Regfat

Didn’t use or almost never

totfat

About 1/4 of the time

totfat*0.75

About 1/2 of the time

totfat*0.50

About 3/4 of the time

totfat*0.25

Almost always or always

0

4. The individual’s percentage energy from fat is estimated by applying regression coefficients to each food item (below):

Estimated Regression Coefficients for Foods as Predictors of Percentage Energy from Fat, by Gender

Parameter

Male

Female

Intercept (b0)

30.795765

29.865870

Cold Cereals (b1)

-0.022086

-0.045171

Skim Milk (b2)

-0.009666

-0.010393

Eggs (b3)

0.026997

0.036787

Bacon or Sausage (b4)

0.109569

0.198808

100% Fruit Juice (b5)

-0.004946

-0.010141

Fruit (b6)

-0.009346

-0.012103

Hot Dogs (b7)

0.040118

0.106686

Cheese (b8)

0.069945

0.103239

Fried Potatoes (b9)

0.024262

0.040374

Regular Mayonnaise (b10)

0.145026

0.287044

Regular Salad Dressing (b11)

0.114649

0.182758

Rice (b12)

-0.017017

-0.014224

Regular Fat (b13)

0.167937

0.326702

5. The following equation is used to estimate percentage energy from fat, for each gender: estpcalfat = intercept + b1 (daily frequency times Gender/Age Specific Portion Size per Mention for cold cereals) + b2 (daily frequency times Gender/Age Specific Portion Size per Mention for skim milk) + ... + b13 (daily frequency times Gender/Age Specific Portion Size per Mention for regular fat) Please note that a SAS Program to calculate Percentage Energy from Fat is available here: Nutrition and Dietary Supplements - Additional Information.

Protocol Name from Source:

1996 Percentage Energy from Fat short instrument (PFat)

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adult, Senior

Participants:

Ages 18 years and older

Specific Instructions:

None

Selection Rationale

This instrument was selected because it has been validated and has low burden.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Person Percentage Energy From FAT Intake 2947019 CDE Browser
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) PhenX - energy from fat protocol 62285-2 LOINC
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel #1 reviewed the measures in the Anthropometrics, Diabetes, Physical Activity and Physical Fitness, and Nutrition and Dietary Supplements domains.

Guidance from the ERP includes:

• No significant changes to measure

Back-compatible: no changes to Data Dictionary

Previous version in Toolkit archive (link)

Source

National Cancer Institute. (1996). Percentage energy from fat short instrument (PFat). Retrieved from http://appliedresearch.cancer.gov/diet/screeners/fat/

General References

Caldwell, K., Jones, R., & Hollowell, J. (2005). Urinary iodine concentration: United States NHANES 2001-2002. Thyroid, 15(7), 687-693.

Hollowell, J. G., Staehling, N. W., Hannon, W. H., Flanders, D. W., Gunter, E. W., Maberly, G. F., . . . Jackson, R. J. (1998). Iodine nutrition in the United States. Trends and public health implications: Iodine excretion data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I and III (1971-1974 and 1988-1994). Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 83(10), 3401-3408.

National Institutes of Health (NIH), Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). Dietary supplement fact sheet: Iodine. Bethesda, MD: Author.

Protocol ID:

50801

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX050801_Butter_On_Bread_Frequency PX050801010500 Think about your eating habits over the past 12 months. About how often did you eat Margarine or butter on bread, rolls, pancakes? Remember breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, and eating out. Choose only one answer. 4 N/A
PX050801_Butter_On_Rice_Frequency PX050801011500 Think about your eating habits over the past 12 months. About how often did you eat Margarine, butter, or oil on rice or pasta? Remember breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, and eating out. Choose only one answer. 4 N/A
PX050801_Butter_On_Vegetable_Frequency PX050801011100 Think about your eating habits over the past 12 months. About how often did you eat Margarine or butter on vegetables, including potatoes? Remember breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, and eating out. Choose only one answer. 4 N/A
PX050801_Cereal_Frequency PX050801010100 Think about your eating habits over the past 12 months. About how often did you eat Cold cereal? Remember breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, and eating out. Choose only one answer. 4 N/A
PX050801_Cheese_Frequency PX050801010900 Think about your eating habits over the past 12 months. About how often did you eat Cheese or cheese spread, regular-fat? Remember breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, and eating out. Choose only one answer. 4 N/A
PX050801_Diet_In_Fat PX050801030000 Overall, when you think about the foods you ate over the past 12 months, would you say your diet was high, medium, or low in fat? 4 N/A
PX050801_Egg_Frequency PX050801010300 Think about your eating habits over the past 12 months. About how often did you eat Eggs, fried or scrambled in margarine, butter, or oil? Remember breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, and eating out. Choose only one answer. 4 N/A
PX050801_French_Fries_Frequency PX050801011000 Think about your eating habits over the past 12 months. About how often did you eat French fries, home fries, or hash brown potatoes? Remember breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, and eating out. Choose only one answer. 4 N/A
PX050801_Fruit_Frequency PX050801010700 Think about your eating habits over the past 12 months. About how often did you eat Fruit (not juices)? Remember breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, and eating out. Choose only one answer. 4 N/A
PX050801_Hot_Dog_Frequency PX050801010800 Think about your eating habits over the past 12 months. About how often did you eat Beef or pork hot dogs, regular-fat? Remember breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, and eating out. Choose only one answer. 4 N/A
PX050801_Mayonnaise_Frequency PX050801011200 Think about your eating habits over the past 12 months. About how often did you eat Mayonnaise, regular-fat? Remember breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, and eating out. Choose only one answer. 4 N/A
PX050801_Orange_Juice_Frequency PX050801010600 Think about your eating habits over the past 12 months. About how often did you drink Orange juice or grapefruit juice? Remember breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, and eating out. Choose only one answer. 4 N/A
PX050801_Reduced_Fat_Margarine_Frequency PX050801020000 Over the past 12 months, when you prepared foods with margarine or ate margarine, how often did you use reduced-fat margarine? 4 N/A
PX050801_Rice_Frequency PX050801011400 Think about your eating habits over the past 12 months. About how often did you eat Rice? Remember breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, and eating out. Choose only one answer. 4 N/A
PX050801_Salad_Dressing_Frequency PX050801011300 Think about your eating habits over the past 12 months. About how often did you eat Salad dressings, regular-fat? Remember breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, and eating out. Choose only one answer. 4 N/A
PX050801_Sausage_Bacon_Frequency PX050801010400 Think about your eating habits over the past 12 months. About how often did you eat Sausage or bacon, regular-fat? Remember breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, and eating out. Choose only one answer. 4 N/A
PX050801_Skim_Milk_Frequency PX050801010200 Think about your eating habits over the past 12 months. About how often did you drink Skim milk, on cereal or to drink? Remember breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, and eating out. Choose only one answer. 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Percent Energy from Fat

Release Date:

October 1, 2015

Definition

A measure to estimate an individual’s usual intake of percentage energy from fat.

Purpose

Fat is an essential nutrient for health. In addition to supplying energy, fat contains essential fatty acids and carries some fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids into the blood stream. Percentage of energy from fat, especially saturated fat, has been associated in some studies with increased coronary heart disease (CHD), obesity and certain types of cancer.

Keywords

Nutrition and Dietary Supplements, obesity, PFat