Protocol - Spirometry - Child
The procedures for performing spirometry with a child are very similar to those for performing spirometry with an adult. However, young children require more training and visual cues (e.g., animation), and they may have a greater number of unsuccessful spirometry test maneuvers. The results from children’s spirometry tests are also more variable than those from adults’ tests.
This protocol may be administered to children as young as 3 to 6 years of age; however, young children may not fully comprehend the instructions and may have fewer successful spirometry attempts.
See Table 2 of Aurora et al., 2004 for the success rates of forced expiratory parameters by age. Of healthy children aged 2 to 6, 78% were successful with FVC and FEV0.5 tests and 71% of children with cystic fibrosis in the same age groups were successful with the same tests.
The following description summarizes some of the key points. For the full protocol, see Beydon et al., 2007 and Miller et al., 2005.
Spirometers usually come with computer software. The spirometer must be connected to a computer during the spirometry tests. Provide the child with his/her own mouthpiece and nose clip. Allow the child to put the mouthpiece in the mouth and blow with the nose clip on the nose. Record whether or not a nose clip was used.
Provide a brief explanation of the spirometry test. Do multiple demonstrations of the spirometry test for the child. Encourage the child to inspire fully into the spirometer and blow fast. Ideally this demonstration and the spirometry tests are performed with visual cues via animation software. Instructions may need to be tailored to the child.
The child may be standing up or sitting in a chair. The position should be noted.
After the child blows into the spirometer, the technician determines if the attempt was a successful “maneuver.” The child should have at least two to three successful and reproducible maneuvers, which may take up to 15 attempts.
Recommended end of test criteria:
1) The subject cannot or should not continue further exhalation.
2) The volume-time curve shows no change in volume (<0.025 L) for ³1 s, and the subject has tried to exhale for ³3 s in children aged <10 yrs and for ³6 s in subjects aged >10 yrs.
(Some children will not be able to expire for a full second.)
- Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)
- Forced Expiratory Volume in .5 seconds (FEV.5)
- Forced Expiratory Volume in .75 seconds (FEV.75)
- Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1)
- Repeatability of parameters above
- Number of satisfactory attempts (maneuvers)
- Nose clips
Variability of results
A child’s spirometry results may not be as repeatable as an adult’s results. Repeatable results should be recorded.
Protocol Name from Source:
Pulmonary Function Testing in Preschool and School Age Children
Personnel and Training Required
Technician trained in conducting pulmonary function tests (PFTs) with a spirometer.
The primary instrument used in pulmonary function testing is the spirometer.
|Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection||No|
|Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual||No|
Mode of Administration
Preschoolers (ages 3-6) and children
This protocol is recommended by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society and represents 15 years of preparation and review by expert committees.
|Common Data Elements (CDE)||Person Pulmonary Function Test Measurement Text||2970229||CDE Browser|
Process and Review
The Expert Review Panel #6 (ERP 6) reviewed the measures in the Respiratory domain.
Guidance from ERP 6 includes:
• New child protocol for the Spirometry measure
• New Data Dictionary
Beydon, N., Davis, S. D., Lombardi, E., Allen, J. L., Arets, H. G., Aurora, P., … Wilson, N. M. (2007). An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: Pulmonary function testing in preschool children. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 175(12), 1304-1345.
Miller, M. R., Hankinson, J., Brusasco, V., Burgos, F., Casaburi, R., Coates, A., … Wanger, J. (2005). Standardisation of spirometry. European Respiratory Journal, 26(2), 319-338.
Aurora, P., Stocks, J., Oliver, C., Saunders, C., Castle, R., Chaziparasidis, G., Bush, A. (2004). Quality control for spirometry in preschool children with and without lung disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 169(10): 1152-1159.
Gaffin, J. M., Shotola, N. L., Martin, T. R., & Phipatanakul, W. (2010). Clinically useful spirometry in preschool-aged children: Evaluation of the 2007 American Thoracic Society Guidelines. Journal of Asthma, 47(7), 762-767.
|Variable Name||Variable ID||Variable Description||Version||dbGaP Mapping|
|PX091602_Spirometry_Preschool_Child_Demonstration||PX091602030000||Was the child provided a demonstration and more||N/A|
|PX091602_Spirometry_Preschool_Child_Forced_Expiratory_Volume_1||PX091602090000||What is the Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 more||N/A|
|PX091602_Spirometry_Preschool_Child_Forced_Expiratory_Volume_5||PX091602070000||What is the Forced Expiratory Volume in .5 more||N/A|
|PX091602_Spirometry_Preschool_Child_Forced_Expiratory_Volume_75||PX091602080000||What is the Forced Expiratory Volume in .75 more||N/A|
|PX091602_Spirometry_Preschool_Child_Forced_Vital_Capacity||PX091602060000||What is the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)?||N/A|
|PX091602_Spirometry_Preschool_Child_Manuever_Successful||PX091602050000||Was the manuever successful? The child more||N/A|
|PX091602_Spirometry_Preschool_Child_Mouthpiece_Nose_Clip||PX091602010000||Was the child allowed put the mouthpiece more||N/A|
|PX091602_Spirometry_Preschool_Child_Nose_Clip||PX091602020000||Was a nose clip used?||N/A|
|PX091602_Spirometry_Preschool_Child_Position||PX091602040000||Which position is the child in during this test?||N/A|
|PX091602_Spirometry_Preschool_Child_Repeatability_Parameters||PX091602100000||What is the repeatability of parameters above?||N/A|
|PX091602_Spirometry_Preschool_Child_Satisfactory_Maneuvers_Number||PX091602110000||What is the number of satisfactory attempts more||N/A|
November 28, 2017
Spirometry is a common Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) measuring the amount (volume) and/or speed (flow) of air being inhaled and exhaled.
Spirometry is a tool used to screen for the presence of obstructive and restrictive lung diseases.
respiratory, spirometry, spirometric, Pulmonary Function Test (PFT), lung, American Thoracic Society, ATS, European Respiratory Society, ERS, forced vital capacity, FVC, forced expiratory volume, FEV, forced expiratory maneuver, obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease