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Protocol - Motives - Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances - General

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Description:

The coping and enhancement subscales from the Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R) consist of 10 questions about the respondent’s coping and enhancement motives (reasons) for drinking alcohol. The respondent is asked to respond to each question via a five-item scale ranging from 1 for "almost never/never" to 5 for "almost always/always."

Protocol:

Here is a list of reasons people give for drinking alcohol (smoking cigarettes or using [insert name of drug of interest]). Thinking of all the times you drink (smoke cigarettes or use [insert name of drug of interest]), how often would you say that you drink (smoke cigarettes or use [insert name of drug of interest]) for each of the following reasons?

There are no right or wrong answers to these questions.

1. To forget your worries

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

2. Because it helps you when you feel depressed or nervous

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

3. To cheer up when you are in a bad mood

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

4. Because you like the feeling

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

5. Because it’s exciting

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

6. To get high

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

7. Because it gives you a pleasant feeling

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

8. Because you feel more self-confident or sure of yourself

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

9. To forget about your problems

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

10. Because it’s fun

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

Scoring Procedure and Interpretation

The items were renumbered 1-10 from their original item numbers in the full Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R), but the order of the items is consistent.

DMQ-R subscale

Scoring procedure

Coping Motives

Mean of items 1, 2, 3, 8, and 9

Enhancement Motives

Mean of items 4, 5, 6, 7, and 10

The scoring scheme reflects factors identified in the original publication. Factor structure may differ in individual studies.

Protocol Name from Source:

The Expert Review Panel has not reviewed this measure yet.

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

The instrument was used initially as an interview in a study of adolescents but has been validated in young adult populations. The interviewer must be trained and found to be competent to conduct personal interviews with individuals from the general population. The interviewer should be trained to prompt respondents further if a "don’t know" response is provided.

Most researchers administer the instrument as a self-report.

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered or interviewer-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adolescent, Adult, Senior

Participants:

Adolescents and adults aged 13 years and older

Specific Instructions:

The subscales of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R) have been validated for alcohol and more broadly adapted to a variety of substances, including tobacco, marijuana, and cocaine. The questions in the DMQ-R are applicable to substances in general by replacing the phrase "drinking alcohol" with "smoking cigarettes" or "using [insert name of drug of interest]."

The Substance Abuse and Addiction Working Group acknowledges that the following questions may gather sensitive information relating to the use of substances and/or illegal conduct. If the information is released, it might be damaging to an individual’s employability, lead to social stigmatization, or lead to other consequences.

Most researchers assure confidentiality as part of their informed consent process, as required by their institutional review boards. Further assurance of confidentiality may be obtained by applying to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for a Certificate of Confidentiality, which helps researchers protect the privacy of human research participants. The procedures for the Certificate of Confidentiality can be found at the Grants Policy website of NIH: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/policy/coc/index.htm.

Selection Rationale

The Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R) includes the coping and enhancement subscales. It is a well-validated and widely used instrument in both clinical and research settings. The instrument was initially used as an interview in a study of adolescents, but it has since been validated in adult populations.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Alcohol Revised Drinking Motive Questionnaire (DMQ-R) Assessment Score 3332520 CDE Browser
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel #3 (ERP 3) reviewed the measures in Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances, and Substance Abuse and Addiction domains.

Guidance from ERP 3 includes:

• No significant changes to measure

Back-compatible: NA no changes to Data Dictionary

Source

Cooper, M. L. (1994). Motivations for alcohol use among adolescents: Development and validation of a four-factor model. Psychological Assessment, 6(2), 117-128.

General References

Comeau, N., Stewart, S. H., & Loba, P. (2001). The relations of trait anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and sensation seeking to adolescents’ motivations for alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Addictive Behaviors, 26(6), 803-825.

Cooper, M. L., Russell, M., Skinner, J. B., & Windle, M. (1992). Development and validation of a three-dimensional measure of drinking motives. Psychological Assessment, 4(2), 123-132.

Kuntsche, E., Knibbe, R., Gmel, G., & Engels, R. (2005). Why do young people drink? A review of drinking motives. Clinical Psychology Review, 25(7), 841-861.

Kuntsche, E., Knibbe, R., Gmel, G., & Engels, R. (2006). Replication and validation of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R, Cooper, 1994) among adolescents in Switzerland. European Addiction Research, 12, 161-168.

Kuntsche, E., Steward, S. H., & Cooper, M. L. (2008). How stable is the motive-alcohol use link? A cross-national validation of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised among adolescents from Switzerland, Canada, and the United States. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69(3), 388-396.

Muesser, K. T., Pallavi, N., Tracy, J. I., DeGirolamo, J., & Mollinaro, M. (1995). Expectations and motives for substance use in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21(3), 367-378.

Simons, J., Correia, C. J., Carey, K. B., & Borsari, B. E. (1998). Validating a five-factor marijuana motives measure: Relations with use, problems, and alcohol motives. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45(3), 265-273.

Stewart, S. H., Zeitlin, S. B., & Samoluk, S. B. (1996). Examination of a three-dimensional drinking motives questionnaire in a young adult university student sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34(1), 61-71.

Ward, L.C., & Kersh, B.C. (1997). Psychometric assessment of motives for using cocaine in men with substance use disorders. Psychological Reports, 80(1), 189-190.

Protocol ID:

520501

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX520501_Because_Its_Exciting PX520501050000 Because it's exciting 4 N/A
PX520501_Because_Its_Fun PX520501100000 Because it's fun 4 N/A
PX520501_Because_You_Like_The_Feeling PX520501040000 Because you like the feeling 4 N/A
PX520501_Gives_You_A_Pleasant_Feeling PX520501070000 Because it gives you a pleasant feeling 4 N/A
PX520501_Helps_When_Depressed_Or_Nervous PX520501020000 Because it helps you when you feel depressed or nervous 4 N/A
PX520501_More_Selfconfident PX520501080000 Because you feel more self-confident or sure of yourself 4 N/A
PX520501_To_Cheer_Up PX520501030000 To cheer up when you are in a bad mood 4 N/A
PX520501_To_Forget_About_Your_Problems PX520501090000 To forget about your problems 4 N/A
PX520501_To_Forget_Your_Worries PX520501010000 To forget your worries 4 N/A
PX520501_To_Get_High PX520501060000 To get high 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Motives - Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Substances

Release Date:

November 21, 2016

Definition

Instruments used separately to assess the motives (reasons) for drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, or using drugs.

Purpose

The purpose of this measure is to assess motives (reasons) for drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, or using drugs, by asking the respondent questions about his/her thoughts and motivations for such actions.The Working Group recommends that investigators incorporate two DMQ-R subscales (coping and enhancement) as core items to obtain general information on a variety of substances. The follow-up protocols (including the full version of the DMQ-R) can then be used to obtain detailed information on a single substance.

Keywords

Addiction, Alcohol, Brief Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives, Brief WISDM, Cigarette, Conformity, Coping, Craving, Desire, DMQ-R, Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised, Drugs, Enhancement, Illicit Drugs, Marijuana, Marijuana Motives Measure, MMM, Nicotine, SAA, Social, Substance Abuse, Tobacco, Urge, Substance-specific Intermediate Phenotypes