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Protocol - Motives - Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Substances - Specific - Alcohol

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Description:

The Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R) consists of 20 questions about the respondent's reasons for drinking alcohol, falling into one of four categories for social, coping, enhancement, and conformity motives. The respondent is asked to respond to each question via a five-item scale ranging from 1 for "almost never/never" to 5 for "almost always/always."

Protocol:

Here is a list of reasons people give for drinking alcohol. Thinking of all the times you drink, how often would you say that you drink for each of the following reasons?

There are no right or wrong answers to these questions.

If you no longer use alcohol, please answer for when you used to drink.

1. To forget your worries

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

2. Because your friends pressure you to drink

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

3. Because it helps you enjoy a party

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

4. Because it helps you when you feel depressed or nervous

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

5. To be sociable

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

6. To cheer up when you are in a bad mood

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

7. Because you like the feeling

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

8. So that others won't kid you about not drinking

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

9. Because it's exciting

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

10. To get high

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

11. Because it makes social gatherings more fun

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

12. To fit in with a group you like

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

13. Because it gives you a pleasant feeling

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

14. Because it improves parties and celebrations

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

15. Because you feel more self-confident or sure of yourself

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

16. To celebrate a special occasion with friends

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

17. To forget about your problems

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

18. Because it's fun

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

19. To be liked

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

20. So you won't feel left out

1 [ ] almost never/never

2 [ ] some of the time

3 [ ] half of the time

4 [ ] most of the time

5 [ ] almost always/always

Scoring Procedure and Interpretation

DMQ-R subscale

Scoring procedure

Social Motives

Mean of items 3, 5, 11, 14, and 16

Coping Motives

Mean of items 1, 4, 6, 15, and 17

Enhancement Motives

Mean of items 7, 9, 10, 13, and 18

Conformity Motives

Mean of items 2, 8, 12, 19, and 20

Total Score

Sum of means for the four subscales

The scoring scheme reflects factors identified in the original publication. Factor structure may differ in individual studies.

Protocol Name from Source:

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required
The interviewer must be trained and found to be competent to conduct personal interviews with individuals from the general population. The interviewer should be trained to prompt respondents further if a "don't know" response is provided.
Equipment Needs
None
Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered or interviewer-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adolescent, Adult, Senior

Participants:

Adolescents and adults aged 13 years and older

Specific Instructions:

The Working Group recommends that investigators incorporate two Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R) subscales (coping and enhancement) as core items to obtain general information on a variety of substances. The full version of the DMQ-R in this follow-up protocol can be used to obtain detailed information on alcohol. Note that the coping and enhancement subscales are repeated from the core DMQ-R items. The coping, enhancement, and social subscales could be used with adolescent or adult populations, but the conformity subscale is only recommended for adolescents because endorsement of peer pressure items declines with age (Cooper 1994).

These questions are only asked if a respondent had affirmatively answered one of the alcohol category questions in the "Alcohol - Lifetime Use" measure.

The Substance Abuse and Addiction Working Group acknowledges that the following questions may gather sensitive information relating to the use of substances and/or illegal conduct. If the information is released, it might be damaging to an individual's employability, lead to social stigmatization, or lead to other consequences.

Most researchers assure confidentiality as part of their informed consent process, as required by their institutional review boards. Further assurance of confidentiality may be obtained by applying to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for a Certificate of Confidentiality, which helps researchers protect the privacy of human research participants. The procedures for the Certificate of Confidentiality can be found at the Grants Policy website of NIH: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/policy/coc/index.htm.

Selection Rationale

The Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R) is a well-validated and widely used instrument in both clinical and research settings. The instrument was used initially as an interview in a study of adolescents (Cooper 1994), but it has since been validated in adult populations.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Alcohol Revised Drinking Motive Questionnaire (DMQ-R) Assessment Score 3332520 CDE Browser
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

Cooper, M. L. (1994). Motivations for alcohol use among adolescents: Development and validation of a four-factor model. Psychological Assessment, 6(2), 117–128.

General References

Comeau, N., Stewart, S. H., & Loba, P. (2001). The relations of trait anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and sensation seeking to adolescents' motivations for alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Addictive Behaviors, 26(6), 803-825.

Cooper, M. L., Russell, M., Skinner, J. B., & Windle, M. (1992). Development and validation of a three-dimensional measure of drinking motives. Psychological Assessment, 4(2), 123–132.

Kuntsche, E., Knibbe, R., Gmel, G., & Engels, R. (2005). Why do young people drink? A review of drinking motives. Clinical Psychology Review, 25(7), 841–861.

Kuntsche, E., Knibbe, R., Gmel, G., & Engels, R. (2006). Replication and validation of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R, Cooper, 1994) among adolescents in Switzerland. European Addiction Research, 12, 161-168.

Kuntsche, E., Steward, S. H., & Cooper, M. L. (2008). How stable is the motive-alcohol use link? A cross-national validation of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised among adolescents from Switzerland, Canada, and the United States. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69(3), 388-396.

Stewart, S. H., Zeitlin, S. B., & Samoluk, S. B. (1996). Examination of a three-dimensional drinking motives questionnaire in a young adult university student sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34(1), 61-71.

Protocol ID:

520502

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX520502_Drink_Because_Its_Exciting PX520502090000 Because it's exciting 4 N/A
PX520502_Drink_Because_Its_Fun PX520502180000 Because it's fun 4 N/A
PX520502_Drink_Because_Like_The_Feeling PX520502070000 Because you like the feeling 4 N/A
PX520502_Drink_Celebrate_Special_Occasion PX520502160000 To celebrate a special occasion with friends 4 N/A
PX520502_Drink_Gives_Pleasant_Feeling PX520502130000 Because it gives you a pleasant feeling 4 N/A
PX520502_Drink_Helps_Enjoy_Party PX520502030000 Because it helps you enjoy a party 4 N/A
PX520502_Drink_Helps_When_Depressed PX520502040000 Because it helps you when you feel depressed or nervous 4 N/A
PX520502_Drink_Improves_Parties PX520502140000 Because it improves parties and celebrations 4 N/A
PX520502_Drink_Makes_Gatherings_More_Fun PX520502110000 Because it makes social gatherings more fun 4 N/A
PX520502_Drink_More_Selfconfident PX520502150000 Because you feel more self-confident or sure of yourself 4 N/A
PX520502_Drink_So_Others_Wont_Kid PX520502080000 So that others won't kid you about not drinking 4 N/A
PX520502_Drink_To_Be_Liked PX520502190000 To be liked 4 N/A
PX520502_Drink_To_Be_Sociable PX520502050000 To be sociable 4 N/A
PX520502_Drink_To_Cheer_Up PX520502060000 To cheer up when you are in a bad mood 4 N/A
PX520502_Drink_To_Fit_In PX520502120000 To fit in with a group you like 4 N/A
PX520502_Drink_To_Forget PX520502170000 To forget about your problems 4 N/A
PX520502_Drink_To_Forget_Your_Worries PX520502010000 To forget your worries 4 N/A
PX520502_Drink_To_Get_High PX520502100000 To get high 4 N/A
PX520502_Drink_Wont_Feel_Left_Out PX520502200000 So you won't feel left out 4 N/A
PX520502_Friends_Pressure_You_To_Drink PX520502020000 Because your friends pressure you to drink 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Motives - Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Substances

Release Date:

February 24, 2012

Definition

Instruments used separately to assess the motives (reasons) for drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, or using drugs.

Purpose

The purpose of this measure is to assess motives (reasons) for drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, or using drugs, by asking the respondent questions about his/her thoughts and motivations for such actions.The Working Group recommends that investigators incorporate two DMQ-R subscales (coping and enhancement) as core items to obtain general information on a variety of substances. The follow-up protocols (including the full version of the DMQ-R) can then be used to obtain detailed information on a single substance.

Keywords

Addiction, Alcohol, Brief Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives, Brief WISDM, Cigarette, Conformity, Coping, Craving, Desire, DMQ-R, Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised, Drugs, Enhancement, Illicit Drugs, Marijuana, Marijuana Motives Measure, MMM, Nicotine, SAA, Social, Substance Abuse, Tobacco, Urge, Substance-specific Intermediate Phenotypes