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Protocol - Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ)

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Description:

The Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) is a self-reported instrument that includes 48 yes/no questions divided into two subscales: Sensitivity to Reward (SR) and Sensitivity to Punishment (SP).

Specific Instructions:

Two self-report measures exist that were designed specifically to assess reinforcement sensitivity according to Gray’s model of personality (Gray, 1981; Gray, 1982): The Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales (Carver and White, 1994) and the Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ; Torrubia et al., 2001). Although the BIS/BAS scales have been applied most frequently in behavioral, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies, some have criticized the scales’ approach toward measuring ‘‘generalized sensitivity to reward and punishment, while Gray’s theory deals with sensitivity to specific cues’’ (Carver and White, 1994; Torrubia et al., 2001; Zinbarg and Revelle, 1989; Matthews and Gililand, 1999). In response to that criticism, the SPSRQ was developed to test behavior inhibition and activation systems employing questions related to very specific cues and situations. The SPSRQ has been validated for use with people with eating disorders (Beck et al., 2009), supporting the assessment of reward sensitivity in anorexia nervosa. Additionally, the SPSRQ has been shown to be more sensitive than the BIS/BAS scales in distinguishing between participants with eating disorders. In particular, the Sensitivity to Reward (SR) subscale from the SPSRQ can distinguish those with eating disorders more accurately than the comparable BAS subscale from the BIS/BAS (Jappe et al., 2011; Matton et al., 2013; Matton et al., 2015).

Protocol:

Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ)

Please answer the following questions by checking either yes or no.

Yes

No

1. Do you often refrain from doing something because you are afraid of it being illegal?

2. Does the good prospect of obtaining money motivate you strongly to do some things?

3. Do you prefer not to ask for something when you are not sure you will obtain it?

4. Are you frequently encouraged to act by the possibility of being valued in your work, in your studies, with your friends or with your family?

5. Are you often afraid of new or unexpected situations?

6. Do you often meet people that you find physically attractive?

7. Is it difficult for you to telephone someone you do not know?

8. Do you like to take some drugs because of the pleasure you get from them?

9. Do you often renounce your rights when you know you can avoid a quarrel with a person or an organization?

10. Do you often do things to be praised?

11. As a child, were you troubled by punishments at home or in school?

12. Do you like being the center of attention at a party or a social meeting?

13. In tasks that you are not prepared for, do you attach great importance to the possibility of failure?

14. Do you spend a lot of your time on obtaining a good image?

15. Are you easily discouraged in difficult situations?

16. Do you need people to show their affection for you all the time?

17. Are you a shy person?

18. When you are in a group, do you try to make your opinions the most intelligent or the funniest?

19. Whenever possible, do you avoid demonstrating your skills for fear of being embarrassed?

20. Do you often take the opportunity to pick up people you find attractive?

21. When you are with a group, do you have difficulties selecting a good topic to talk about?

22. As a child, did you do a lot of things to get people’s approval?

23. Is it often difficult for you to fall asleep when you think about things you have done or must do?

24. Does the possibility of social advancement, move you to action, even if this involves not playing fair?

25. Do you think a lot before complaining in a restaurant if your meal is not well prepared?

26. Do you generally give preferences to those activities that imply an immediate gain?

27. Would you be bothered if you had to return to a store when you noticed you were given the wrong change?

28. Do you often have trouble resisting the temptation of doing forbidden things?

29. Whenever you can, do you avoid going to unknown places?

30. Do you like to compete and do everything you can to win?

31. Are you often worried by things that you said or did?

32. Is it easy for you to associate tastes and smells to very pleasant events?

33. Would it be difficult for you to ask your boss for a raise (salary increase)?

34. Are there a large number of objects or sensations that remind you of pleasant events?

35. Do you generally try to avoid speaking in public?

36. When you start to play with a slot machine, is it often difficult for you to stop?

37. Do you, on a regular basis, think that you could do more things if it was not for your insecurity or fear?

38. Do you sometimes do things for quick gains?

39. Comparing yourself to people you know, are you afraid of many things?

40. Does your attention easily stray from your work in the presence of an attractive stranger?

41. Do you often find yourself worrying about things to the extent that performance in intellectual abilities is impaired?

42. Are you interested in money to the point of being able to do risky jobs?

43. Do you often refrain from doing something you like in order not to be rejected or disapproved of by others?

44. Do you like to put competitive ingredients in all of your activities?

45. Generally, do you pay more attention to threats than to pleasant events?

46. Would you like to be a socially powerful person?

47. Do you often refrain from doing something because of your fear of being embarrassed?

48. Do you like displaying your physical abilities even though this may involve danger?

Scoring:

Subscale scores are derived by summing the responses of the individual items.

Sensitivity to reward subscale: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48.

Sensitivity to punishment subscale: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47.

Protocol Name from Source:

Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ)

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adolescent, Adult

Participants:

Adolescents and adults, ages 14 and older

Selection Rationale

The Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) is a validated, reliable, self-administered instrument that is easy to score and interpret. In comparison to other questionnaires that measure Reinforcement Sensitivity (e.g., the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system [BIS/BAS] scales), the SPSRQ performs better in populations with eating disorders.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Eating Disorder Sensitivity to Punishment and Reward Questionnaire Assessment Scale 4926458 CDE Browser
Human Phenotype Ontology Addictive behavior HP:0030858 HPO
Human Phenotype Ontology Diminished motivation HP:0000745 HPO
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel #3 (ERP 3) reviewed the measures in Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances, and Substance Abuse and Addiction domains.

Guidance from ERP 3 includes:

• No significant changes to measure

Back-compatible: NA no changes to Data Dictionary

Source

Torrubia, R., Avila, C., Molto, J., & Caseras, X. (2001). The Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) as a measure of Gray’s anxiety and impulsivity dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences, 31(6), 837-862.

General References

Beck, I., Smits, D. J. M., Claes, L., Vandereycken, W., & Bijttebier, P. (2009). Psychometric evaluation of the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation System Scales and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire in a sample of eating disordered patients. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 407-412

Bijttebier, P., Beck, I., Claes, L., & Vandereycken, W. (2009). Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory as a framework for research on personality-psychopathology associations. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 421-430.

Burgess, E. E., Turan, B., Lokken, K. L., Morse, A., & Boggiano, M. M. (2014). Profiling motives behind hedonic eating. Preliminary validation of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale. Appetite, 72, 66-72.

Carver, C. S., & White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(2), 319-333.

Cogswell, A., Alloy, L. B., van Dulmen M. H. M., & Fresco, D. M. (2006). A psychometric evaluation of behavioral inhibition and approach self-report measures. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1649-1658.

Davis, G. (2013). A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: Shared associations with seasonality and personality factors. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 4, 1-9.

Glashouwer, K. A., Bloot, L., Veenstra, E. M., Franken, I. H. A., & De Jong, P. J. (2014). Heightened sensitivity to punishment and reward in anorexia nervosa. Appetite, 75, 97-102.

Gray, J. A. (1981). A critique of Eysenck’s theory of personality. In H.J. Eysenck (ed.), A model for personality (pp. 246-276). New York: Springer.

Gray, J. A. (1982). Neuropsychological theory of anxiety. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hennegan, J. M., Loxton, N. J., & Mattar, A. (2013). Great expectations. Eating expectancies as mediators of reinforcement sensitivity and eating. Appetite, 71, 81-88.

Jappe, L. M., Frank, G. K. W., Shott, M. E., Rollin, M. D. H., Pryor, T., Hagman, J. O., Yang, T. T., & Davis, E. (2011). Heightened sensitivity to reward and punishment in anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 44, 317-324.

Matthews, G., & Gilliland, K. (1999). The personality theories of H. J. Eysenck and J. A. Gray: A comparative review. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 583-626.

Matton, A., Goossens, L., Braet, C., & Vervaet, M. (2013). Punishment and reward sensitivity: Are naturally occurring clusters in these traits related to eating and weight problems in adolescents? European Eating Disorders Review, 21, 184-194.

Matton, A., Goossens, L., Vervaet, M., & Braet, C. (2015). Temperamental differences between adolescents and young adults with or without an eating disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry 56, 229-238.

Zinbarg, R., & Revelle, W. (1989). Personality and conditioning: a test of four models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(2), 301-314.

Protocol ID:

540603

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable Name Variable IDVariable DescriptiondbGaP Mapping
PX540603_SPSRQ_Associate_TastesSmells_Pleasant_Events
PX540603320000 Is it easy for you to associate tastes and more
smells to very pleasant events? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Avoid_Demonstrating_Fear_Embarrassment
PX540603190000 Whenever possible, do you avoid more
demonstrating your skills for fear of being embarrassed? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Avoid_Going_Unknown_Places
PX540603290000 Whenever you can, do you avoid going to more
unknown places? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Avoid_Public_Speaking
PX540603350000 Do you generally try to avoid speaking in public? N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_BotheredTo_Return_Store_WrongChange
PX540603270000 Would you be bothered if you had to return more
to a store when you noticed you were given the wrong change? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_CenterOf_Attention_PartySocialMeeting
PX540603120000 Do you like being the center of attention at more
a party or a social meeting? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Compete_DoEverything
PX540603300000 Do you like to compete and do everything you more
can to win? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Competitive_Ingredients_All_Activities
PX540603440000 Do you like to put competitive ingredients more
in all of your activities? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_CouldDoMore_Without_InsecurityFear
PX540603370000 Do you, on a regular basis, think that you more
could do more things if it was not for your insecurity or fear? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Difficulty_Resisting_Temptation_ForbiddenThings
PX540603280000 Do you often have trouble resisting the more
temptation of doing forbidden things? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Difficulty_Sleep_ThingsToDo
PX540603230000 Is it often difficult for you to fall asleep more
when you think about things you have done or must do? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Difficulty_Telephone_Stranger
PX540603070000 Is it difficult for you to telephone someone more
you do not know? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Difficult_Ask_Boss_SalaryIncrease
PX540603330000 Would it be difficult for you to ask your more
boss for a raise (salary increase)? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Difficult_ToStop_SlotMachine
PX540603360000 When you start to play with a slot machine, more
is it often difficult for you to stop? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_DiscouragedIn_Difficult_Situations
PX540603150000 Are you easily discouraged in difficult more
situations? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Display_PhysicalAbilities_Involve_Danger
PX540603480000 Do you like displaying your physical more
abilities even though this may involve danger? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_DistractedFrom_Work_Attractive_Stranger
PX540603400000 Does your attention easily stray from your more
work in the presence of an attractive stranger? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Do_ThingsFor_Approval_AsChild
PX540603220000 As a child, did you do a lot of things to more
get people’s approval? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Do_ThingsFor_QuickGains
PX540603380000 Do you sometimes do things for quick gains? N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Encouraged_ToAct_ToBe_Valued
PX540603040000 Are you frequently encouraged to act by the more
possibility of being valued in your work, in your studies, with your friends or with your family? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_FearOf_Many_Things
PX540603390000 Comparing yourself to people you know, are more
you afraid of many things? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Get_Pleasure_From_Drugs
PX540603080000 Do you like to take some drugs because of more
the pleasure you get from them? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_GivePreferenceTo_Activities_With_ImmediateGain
PX540603260000 Do you generally give preferences to those more
activities that imply an immediate gain? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Group_Difficulty_Discussion_Topic
PX540603210000 When you are with a group, do you have more
difficulties selecting a good topic to talk about? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_ImportanceOn_PossibilityOf_Failure
PX540603130000 In tasks that you are not prepared for, do more
you attach great importance to the possibility of failure? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_InGroup_Make_MostIntelligentFunniest_Comments
PX540603180000 When you are in a group, do you try to make more
your opinions the most intelligent or the funniest? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Meet_People_Physically_Attractive
PX540603060000 Do you often meet people that you find more
physically attractive? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Money_Motivate_Risky_Jobs
PX540603420000 Are you interested in money to the point of more
being able to do risky jobs? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_More_Attention_To_Threats
PX540603450000 Generally, do you pay more attention to more
threats than to pleasant events? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Need_Constant_ShowOf_Affection
PX540603160000 Do you need people to show their affection more
for you all the time? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_NotDoSomething_Fear_Legality
PX540603010000 Do you often refrain from doing something more
because you are afraid of it being illegal? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_NotToAskWhen_NotSure_Obtainable
PX540603030000 Do you prefer not to ask for something when more
you are not sure you will obtain it? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Objects_Sensations_Reminder_PleasantEvents
PX540603340000 Are there a large number of objects or more
sensations that remind you of pleasant events? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Often_Afraid_NewUnexpected_Situations
PX540603050000 Are you often afraid of new or unexpected more
situations? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Often_Do_Things_ForPraise
PX540603100000 Do you often do things to be praised? N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Often_PickUp_Attractive_People
PX540603200000 Do you often take the opportunity to pick up more
people you find attractive? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_ProspectOf_Money_Motivation
PX540603020000 Does the good prospect of obtaining money more
motivate you strongly to do some things? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Refrain_DoingSomething_Avoid_DisapprovalRejection
PX540603430000 Do you often refrain from doing something more
you like in order not to be rejected or disapproved of by others? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Refrain_DoingSomething_Fear_Embarrassment
PX540603470000 Do you often refrain from doing something more
because of your fear of being embarrassed? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Renounce_Rights_Avoid_Quarrel
PX540603090000 Do you often renounce your rights when you more
know you can avoid a quarrel with a person or an organization? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Shy_Person
PX540603170000 Are you a shy person? N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_SocialAdvancement_Motivation_NotFairPlay
PX540603240000 Does the possibility of social advancement, more
move you to action, even if this involves not playing fair? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Socially_Powerful_Person
PX540603460000 Would you like to be a socially powerful person? N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_ThinkBefore_Complaining_Restaurant_Meal
PX540603250000 Do you think a lot before complaining in a more
restaurant if your meal is not well prepared? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Time_Spent_Obtaining_Image
PX540603140000 Do you spend a lot of your time on obtaining more
a good image? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_TroubledBy_Punishments_At_HomeSchool
PX540603110000 As a child, were you troubled by punishments more
at home or in school? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_WorriedBy_Things_You_SaidDid
PX540603310000 Are you often worried by things that you more
said or did? show less
N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Worry_Impairs_intellectual_Performance
PX540603410000 Do you often find yourself worrying about more
things to the extent that performance in intellectual abilities is impaired? show less
N/A
Substance Abuse and Addiction
Measure Name:

Sensitivity to Reward and Punishment

Release Date:

February 24, 2012

Definition

This measure assesses the participant’s sensitivity to two motivational systems: the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and the behavioral activation system (BAS).

Purpose

The behavioral inhibition system (BIS) alerts the person to danger and punishment through feelings of anxiety and therefore inhibits behavior that leads to negative consequences. The behavioral activation system (BAS) alerts the person to reward through feelings of elation and therefore promotes behavior that leads to positive consequences. Various psychological disorders-such as attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, and substance abuse-may result from an imbalance in one motivational system or the other (Bijttebier et al., 2009).

Keywords

Adolescent, Adult, BAS, Behavioral activation system, Behavioral inhibition system, BIS, Incentive, Motivation, Personality, Punishment, Reinforcement sensitivity, Reward, Substance abuse, Substance use, SAA, Substance Use-related Psychosocial Risk Factors