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Protocol - Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale

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Description:

The Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale is a 40-item self-report inventory to assess the levels of positive and negative perfectionism. Respondents are asked to complete the questionnaire using a 5-point response format, indicating for each item either "strongly agree" (scored 5), "agree" (scored 4), "don’t know" (scored 3), "disagree" (scored 2), or "strongly disagree" (scored 1). Scores for positive perfectionism and negative perfectionism, each with 20 questions, can range from 20 to 100, with higher values indicating greater positive and negative perfectionism, respectively.

Protocol:

Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale

Please choose the appropriate statement and corresponding number under the column which applies best to each of the following statements. Please answer each statement.

All replies are strictly confidential.

"5" Strongly Agree

"4" Agree

"3" Don’t Know

"2" Disagree

"1" Strongly Disagree

1. When I start something I feel anxious that I might fail.

2. My family and friends are proud of me when I do really well.

3. I take pride in being meticulous when doing things.

4. I set impossibly high standards for myself.

5. I try to avoid the disapproval of others at all costs.

6. I like the acclaim I get for an outstanding performance.

7. When I am doing something I cannot relax until it’s perfect.

8. It feels as though my best is never good enough for other people.

9. Producing a perfect performance is a reward in its own right.

10. The problem of success is that I must work even harder.

11. If I make a mistake I feel that the whole thing is ruined.

12. I feel dissatisfied with myself unless I am working towards a higher standard all the time.

13. I know the kind of person I ought or want to be, but feel I always fall short of this.

14. Other people respect me for my achievements.

15. As a child however well I did, it never seemed good enough to please my parents.

16. I think everyone loves a winner.

17. Other people expect nothing less than perfection of me.

18. When I’m competing against others, I’m motivated by wanting to be the best.

19. I feel good when pushing out the limits.

20. When I achieve my goals I feel dissatisfied.

21. My high standards are admired by others.

22. If I fail people, I fear they will cease to respect or care for me.

23. I like to please other people by being successful.

24. I gain great approval from others by the quality of my accomplishments.

25. My successes spur me on to greater achievements.

26. I feel guilty or ashamed if I do less than perfectly.

27. No matter how well I do I never feel satisfied with my performance.

28. I believe that rigorous practice makes for perfection.

29. I enjoy the glory gained by successes.

30. I gain deep satisfaction when I have perfected something.

31. I feel I have to be perfect to gain people’s approval.

32. My parents encouraged me to excel.

33. I worry what others think if I make mistakes.

34. I get fulfillment from totally dedicating myself to a task.

35. I like it when others recognize that what I do requires great skill and effort to perfect.

36. The better I do, the better I am expected to do by others.

37. I enjoy working towards greater levels of precision and accuracy.

38. I would rather not start something than risk doing it less than perfectly.

39. When I do things I feel others will judge critically the standard of my work.

40. I like the challenge of setting very high standards for myself.

Scoring:

The Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale includes two subscales:

  • Positive perfectionism - items 2, 3, 6, 9, 14, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 32, 34, 35, 37, 40.
  • Negative perfectionism - items 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 20, 22, 26, 27, 31, 33, 36, 38, 39.

Item responses are summed to give individual subscale scores that can range from 20 to 100. Higher values indicate greater positive and negative perfectionism.

Protocol Name from Source:

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adolescent, Adult

Participants:

Adolescents and adults

Specific Instructions:

None

Selection Rationale

The Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale is a relatively brief, widely used, reliable, and valid self-report questionnaire that is easy to administer, score, and interpret.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Eating Disorder Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale Assessment Scale 4926442 CDE Browser
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

Terry-Short, L. A., Glynn Owens, R., Slade, P. D., & Dewey, M. E. (1995). Positive and negative perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 18, 663-668.

General References

Bieling, P. J., Israeli, A. L., & Antony, M. M. (2004). Is perfectionism good, bad, or both? Examining models of the perfectionism construct. Personality and individual Differences, 36, 1373-1385.

Frost, R. O., Heimberg, R. G., Halt, C. S., Mattia, J. L. & Neubauer, A. L. (1993). A comparison of two measures of perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 99-126.

Haase, A. M., & Prapavessis, H. (2004). Assessing the factor structure and composition of the Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale in sport. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(7), 1725-1740. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2003.07.01

Hewitt, G. L. & Flett, G. L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(3), 456-470.

Slade, P. D., Coppel, D. B., & Townes, B. D. (2009). Neurocognitive correlates of positive and negative perfectionism. International Journal of Neuroscience, 119(10), 1741-1754.

Protocol ID:

650601

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Anxiety_Failure PX650601010000 When I start something I feel anxious that I might fail. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Avoid_Disapproval PX650601050000 I try to avoid the disapproval of others at all costs. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_BePerfect_GainApproval PX650601310000 I feel I have to be perfect to gain people's approval. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Best_NotGoodEnough PX650601080000 It feels as though my best is never good enough for other people. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_BetterPerformance_ByOthers PX650601360000 The better I do, the better I am expected to do by others. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Challenge_HighStandards PX650601400000 I like the challenge of setting very high standards for myself. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Competition_MotivatedBy PX650601180000 When I'm competing against others, I'm motivated by wanting to be the best. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Dissatisfied_Achieve_Goals PX650601200000 When I achieve my goals I feel dissatisfied. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Dissatisfied_Higher_Standard PX650601120000 I feel dissatisfied with myself unless I am working towards a higher standard all the time. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Enjoy_GreaterLevels_PrecisionAccuracy PX650601370000 I enjoy working towards greater levels of precision and accuracy. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Everyone_Winner PX650601160000 I think everyone loves a winner. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Failure_Cease_Respect PX650601220000 If I fail people, I fear they will cease to respect or care for me. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_FallShort_Want_ToBe PX650601130000 I know the kind of person I ought or want to be, but feel I always fall short of this. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_FeelGood_Push_Limits PX650601190000 I feel good when pushing out the limits. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_FeelGuilty_LessPerfect PX650601260000 I feel guilty or ashamed if I do less than perfectly. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Fullfillment_FromDedication PX650601340000 I get fulfillment from totally dedicating myself to a task. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_GainApproval_ByAccomplishments PX650601240000 I gain great approval from others by the quality of my accomplishments. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Glory_From_Success PX650601290000 I enjoy the glory gained by successes. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_HighStandards_Admired_Others PX650601210000 My high standards are admired by others. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Impossible_HighStandards PX650601040000 I set impossibly high standards for myself. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Judged_Critically PX650601390000 When I do things I feel others will judge critically the standard of my work. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Mistake_Whole_Ruined PX650601110000 If I make a mistake I feel that the whole thing is ruined. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Never_GoodEnough PX650601150000 As a child however well I did, it never seemed good enough to please my parents. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Never_Satisfied_WithPerformance PX650601270000 No matter how well I do I never feel satisfied with my performance. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_NotStartIf_LessThanPerfect PX650601380000 I would rather not start something than risk doing it less than perfectly. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Others_NothingLess_Perfection PX650601170000 Other people expect nothing less than perfection of me. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Others_Recognize_RequiredSkills PX650601350000 I like it when others recognize that what I do requires great skill and effort to perfect. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Others_Respect_Achievements PX650601140000 Other people respect me for my achievements. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Parents_Encouragement PX650601320000 My parents encouraged me to excel. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_PerfectPerformance_Rewarding PX650601090000 Producing a perfect performance is a reward in its own right. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_PleaseOthers_BySuccess PX650601230000 I like to please other people by being successful. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Practice_Makes_Perfection PX650601280000 I believe that rigorous practice makes for perfection. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Praise_Performance PX650601060000 I like the acclaim I get for an outstanding performance. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Pride_Meticulous PX650601030000 I take pride in being meticulous when doing things. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_ProblemOf_Success PX650601100000 The problem of success is that I must work even harder. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Proud_DoWell PX650601020000 My family and friends are proud of me when I do really well. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Relax_WhenPerfect PX650601070000 When I am doing something I cannot relax until it's perfect. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Satisfaction_FromPerfection PX650601300000 I gain deep satisfaction when I have perfected something. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_SuccessLeadTo_Achievements PX650601250000 My successes spur me on to greater achievements. 4 N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Worry_Others PX650601330000 I worry what others think if I make mistakes. 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Perfectionism

Release Date:

August 7, 2015

Definition

A questionnaire to assess perfectionism, which includes setting excessive performance standards accompanied by self-criticism and concern of others’ expectations.

Purpose

This measure can be used to distinguish between the levels of positive and negative perfectionism-two constructs that distinguish between normal and neurotic perfectionism. Perfectionism is associated with psychological disorders, including eating disorders, depression, anxiety, and personality disorders.

Keywords

Perfectionism, eating disorders, positive perfectionism, neurotic perfectionism