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Protocol - Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale

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Description:

The Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale is a 40-item self-report inventory to assess the levels of positive and negative perfectionism. Respondents are asked to complete the questionnaire using a 5-point response format, indicating for each item either "strongly agree" (scored 5), "agree" (scored 4), "don’t know" (scored 3), "disagree" (scored 2), or "strongly disagree" (scored 1). Scores for positive perfectionism and negative perfectionism, each with 20 questions, can range from 20 to 100, with higher values indicating greater positive and negative perfectionism, respectively.

Specific Instructions:

None

Protocol:

Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale

Please choose the appropriate statement and corresponding number under the column which applies best to each of the following statements. Please answer each statement.

All replies are strictly confidential.

"5" Strongly Agree

"4" Agree

"3" Don’t Know

"2" Disagree

"1" Strongly Disagree

1. When I start something I feel anxious that I might fail.

2. My family and friends are proud of me when I do really well.

3. I take pride in being meticulous when doing things.

4. I set impossibly high standards for myself.

5. I try to avoid the disapproval of others at all costs.

6. I like the acclaim I get for an outstanding performance.

7. When I am doing something I cannot relax until it’s perfect.

8. It feels as though my best is never good enough for other people.

9. Producing a perfect performance is a reward in its own right.

10. The problem of success is that I must work even harder.

11. If I make a mistake I feel that the whole thing is ruined.

12. I feel dissatisfied with myself unless I am working towards a higher standard all the time.

13. I know the kind of person I ought or want to be, but feel I always fall short of this.

14. Other people respect me for my achievements.

15. As a child however well I did, it never seemed good enough to please my parents.

16. I think everyone loves a winner.

17. Other people expect nothing less than perfection of me.

18. When I’m competing against others, I’m motivated by wanting to be the best.

19. I feel good when pushing out the limits.

20. When I achieve my goals I feel dissatisfied.

21. My high standards are admired by others.

22. If I fail people, I fear they will cease to respect or care for me.

23. I like to please other people by being successful.

24. I gain great approval from others by the quality of my accomplishments.

25. My successes spur me on to greater achievements.

26. I feel guilty or ashamed if I do less than perfectly.

27. No matter how well I do I never feel satisfied with my performance.

28. I believe that rigorous practice makes for perfection.

29. I enjoy the glory gained by successes.

30. I gain deep satisfaction when I have perfected something.

31. I feel I have to be perfect to gain people’s approval.

32. My parents encouraged me to excel.

33. I worry what others think if I make mistakes.

34. I get fulfillment from totally dedicating myself to a task.

35. I like it when others recognize that what I do requires great skill and effort to perfect.

36. The better I do, the better I am expected to do by others.

37. I enjoy working towards greater levels of precision and accuracy.

38. I would rather not start something than risk doing it less than perfectly.

39. When I do things I feel others will judge critically the standard of my work.

40. I like the challenge of setting very high standards for myself.

Scoring:

The Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale includes two subscales:

  • Positive perfectionism - items 2, 3, 6, 9, 14, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 32, 34, 35, 37, 40.
  • Negative perfectionism - items 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 20, 22, 26, 27, 31, 33, 36, 38, 39.

Item responses are summed to give individual subscale scores that can range from 20 to 100. Higher values indicate greater positive and negative perfectionism.

Protocol Name from Source:

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adolescent, Adult

Participants:

Adolescents and adults

Selection Rationale

The Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale is a relatively brief, widely used, reliable, and valid self-report questionnaire that is easy to administer, score, and interpret.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Eating Disorder Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale Assessment Scale 4926442 CDE Browser
Human Phenotype Ontology Obsessive-compulsive behavior HP:0000722 HPO
Human Phenotype Ontology Anorexia HP:0002039 HPO
Human Phenotype Ontology Bulimia HP:0100739 HPO
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

Not applicable.

Source

Terry-Short, L. A., Glynn Owens, R., Slade, P. D., & Dewey, M. E. (1995). Positive and negative perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 18, 663-668.

General References

Bieling, P. J., Israeli, A. L., & Antony, M. M. (2004). Is perfectionism good, bad, or both? Examining models of the perfectionism construct. Personality and individual Differences, 36, 1373-1385.

Frost, R. O., Heimberg, R. G., Halt, C. S., Mattia, J. L. & Neubauer, A. L. (1993). A comparison of two measures of perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 99-126.

Haase, A. M., & Prapavessis, H. (2004). Assessing the factor structure and composition of the Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale in sport. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(7), 1725-1740. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2003.07.01

Hewitt, G. L. & Flett, G. L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(3), 456-470.

Slade, P. D., Coppel, D. B., & Townes, B. D. (2009). Neurocognitive correlates of positive and negative perfectionism. International Journal of Neuroscience, 119(10), 1741-1754.

Protocol ID:

650601

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable Name Variable IDVariable DescriptiondbGaP Mapping
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Anxiety_Failure
PX650601010000 When I start something I feel anxious that I more
might fail. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Avoid_Disapproval
PX650601050000 I try to avoid the disapproval of others at more
all costs. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_BePerfect_GainApproval
PX650601310000 I feel I have to be perfect to gain more
people’s approval. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Best_NotGoodEnough
PX650601080000 It feels as though my best is never good more
enough for other people. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_BetterPerformance_ByOthers
PX650601360000 The better I do, the better I am expected to more
do by others. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Challenge_HighStandards
PX650601400000 I like the challenge of setting very high more
standards for myself. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Competition_MotivatedBy
PX650601180000 When I’m competin more
against others, I’m motivated by wanting to be the best. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Dissatisfied_Achieve_Goals
PX650601200000 When I achieve my goals I feel dissatisfied. N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Dissatisfied_Higher_Standard
PX650601120000 I feel dissatisfied with myself unless I am more
working towards a higher standard all the time. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Enjoy_GreaterLevels_PrecisionAccuracy
PX650601370000 I enjoy working towards greater levels of more
precision and accuracy. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Everyone_Winner
PX650601160000 I think everyone loves a winner. N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Failure_Cease_Respect
PX650601220000 If I fail people, I fear they will cease to more
respect or care for me. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_FallShort_Want_ToBe
PX650601130000 I know the kind of person I ought or want to more
be, but feel I always fall short of this. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_FeelGood_Push_Limits
PX650601190000 I feel good when pushing out the limits. N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_FeelGuilty_LessPerfect
PX650601260000 I feel guilty or ashamed if I do less than more
perfectly. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Fullfillment_FromDedication
PX650601340000 I get fulfillment from totally dedicating more
myself to a task. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_GainApproval_ByAccomplishments
PX650601240000 I gain great approval from others by the more
quality of my accomplishments. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Glory_From_Success
PX650601290000 I enjoy the glory gained by successes. N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_HighStandards_Admired_Others
PX650601210000 My high standards are admired by others. N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Impossible_HighStandards
PX650601040000 I set impossibly high standards for myself. N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Judged_Critically
PX650601390000 When I do things I feel others will judge more
critically the standard of my work. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Mistake_Whole_Ruined
PX650601110000 If I make a mistake I feel that the whole more
thing is ruined. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Never_GoodEnough
PX650601150000 As a child however well I did, it never more
seemed good enough to please my parents. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Never_Satisfied_WithPerformance
PX650601270000 No matter how well I do I never feel more
satisfied with my performance. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_NotStartIf_LessThanPerfect
PX650601380000 I would rather not start something than risk more
doing it less than perfectly. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Others_NothingLess_Perfection
PX650601170000 Other people expect nothing less than more
perfection of me. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Others_Recognize_RequiredSkills
PX650601350000 I like it when others recognize that what I more
do requires great skill and effort to perfect. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Others_Respect_Achievements
PX650601140000 Other people respect me for my achievements. N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Parents_Encouragement
PX650601320000 My parents encouraged me to excel. N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_PerfectPerformance_Rewarding
PX650601090000 Producing a perfect performance is a reward more
in its own right. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_PleaseOthers_BySuccess
PX650601230000 I like to please other people by being successful. N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Practice_Makes_Perfection
PX650601280000 I believe that rigorous practice makes for more
perfection. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Praise_Performance
PX650601060000 I like the acclaim I get for an outstanding more
performance. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Pride_Meticulous
PX650601030000 I take pride in being meticulous when doing more
things. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_ProblemOf_Success
PX650601100000 The problem of success is that I must work more
even harder. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Proud_DoWell
PX650601020000 My family and friends are proud of me when I more
do really well. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Relax_WhenPerfect
PX650601070000 When I am doing something I cannot relax more
until it’s perfect. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Satisfaction_FromPerfection
PX650601300000 I gain deep satisfaction when I have more
perfected something. show less
N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_SuccessLeadTo_Achievements
PX650601250000 My successes spur me on to greater achievements. N/A
PX650601_PerfectionismScale_AdolescentAdult_Worry_Others
PX650601330000 I worry what others think if I make mistakes. N/A
Mental Health Research
Measure Name:

Perfectionism

Release Date:

August 7, 2015

Definition

A questionnaire to assess perfectionism, which includes setting excessive performance standards accompanied by self-criticism and concern of others’ expectations.

Purpose

This measure can be used to distinguish between the levels of positive and negative perfectionism-two constructs that distinguish between normal and neurotic perfectionism. Perfectionism is associated with psychological disorders, including eating disorders, depression, anxiety, and personality disorders.

Keywords

Perfectionism, eating disorders, positive perfectionism, neurotic perfectionism