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Protocol - Acculturation

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Description:

The respondent is asked how well he/she speaks, reads, and writes English on a scale of 1 to 4. The respondent may indicate poor (1), fair (2), good (3), or excellent (4). The respondent is also asked which language he/she uses when speaking with friends, speaking with family members, and also for thinking. A scale and list of languages are used to indicate the response. The scale includes options for (language) all of the time (1), [language] most of the time (2), [language] and English equally (3), English most of the time (4), and English all of the time (5). "Don’t know" and "refused" can also be coded for these questions.

Protocol:

Poor

(1)

Fair

(2)

Good

(3)

Excellent

(4)

Don't Know

(8)

Refused

(9)

1. How well do you speak English?

1

2

3

4

8

9

2. How well do you read English?

1

2

3

4

8

9

3. How well do you write in English?

1

2

3

4

8

9

The next few questions ask about your language preference. For these questions, please tell me the number that applies from the list below. (If you prefer, I can read the response choices to you.)

4. To begin, what primary non-English language or dialect do you speak or understand?

List of Languages [Note: Investigators should include the primary languages of their study population]:

(1) Spanish

(2) Chinese

(3) Vietnamese

(4) Tagalog

(5) Other Specify: ______________________

INTERVIEWER: For items 5-7, fill in the (language) specified in item 4.

(LANGUAGE) ALL THE TIME (1) (LANGUAGE) MOST OF THE TIME (2) (LANGUAGE) AND ENGLISH EQUALLY (3) ENGLISH MOST OF THE TIME (4) ENGLISH ALL THE TIME (5) DON'T KNOW (8) REFUSED (9)

5. What language do you speak with most of your friends?

1

2

3

4

5

8

9

6. What language do you speak with most of your family?

1

2

3

4

5

8

9

7. In what language do you think?

1

2

3

4

5

8

9

Protocol Name from Source:

Not applicable, see source.

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

The interviewer must be trained to conduct personal interviews with individuals from the general population. The interviewer must be trained and found to be competent (i.e., tested by an expert) at the completion of personal interviews. The interviewer should be trained to prompt respondents further if a "don’t know" response is provided.

Equipment Needs

These questions can be administered in a computerized or noncomputerized format (i.e., paper-and-pencil instrument). Computer software is necessary to develop computer-assisted instruments. A laptop computer/handheld computer will be needed to administer a computer-assisted questionnaire.

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Interviewer-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adult

Participants:

Ages 18 years and older.

Specific Instructions:

Sociodemographic variables such as race, ethnicity, birthplace, birthplace of parents, and years living in the United States (PhenX measures) should also be collected to complement these questions. The interviewer should also record the language in which the questions were administered.

The External Review Panel (ERP) notes that acculturation is highly specific to different ethnic groups. Although there are other measures more specific to particular groups, this protocol is appropriate to measure acculturation broadly across populations who have immigrated to the United States.

The ERP recommends that researchers review The Cultural Framework for Health: An Integrative Approach for Research and Program Design and Evaluation (Kagawa-Singer et al., 2015), supported by the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, National Institutes of Health, for conceptual information about culture and other measures of acculturation.

Selection Rationale

These questions have been used on large studies such as the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), which included a sample of 4,649 Latinos and Asian Americans. The internal consistency of the questions in the language proficiency scale was very good, with Cronbach’s alphas of 0.90 for the English-language interview and 0.96 for the Spanish-language interview.

Language

English, Mandarin Chinese, Spanish, Tagalog, Vietnamese

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Person Acculturation Assessment Score 3163002 CDE Browser
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) Acculturation proto 62913-9 LOINC
Derived Variables

None

Process and Review

Expert Review Panel 4 (ERP 4) reviewed the measures in the Neurology, Psychiatric, and Psychosocial domains.

Guidance from ERP 4 included the following:

· Revised description of measure

Source

National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health. (2002). National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), 2002. Question numbers LP5d, LP5e, LP5f, LP7a, LP7b, and LP7c are represented in this protocol as 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7, respectively.

General References

Alegria, M., Vila, D., Woo, M., Canino, G., Takeuchi, D., Vera, M., Febo, V., Guarnaccia, P., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., & Shrout, P. (2004). Cultural relevance and equivalence in the NLAAS instrument: Integrating etic and emic in the development of cross-cultural measures for a psychiatric epidemiology and services study of Latinos. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 13(4), 270-288.

Guarnaccia, P. J., Pincay, I. M., Alegria, M., Shrout, P., Lewis-Fernandez, R., & Canino, G. (2007). Assessing diversity among Latinos: Results from the NLAAS. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 29(4), 510-534.

Kagawa-Singer, M., Dressler, W. W., George, S. M., & Elwood, W. N. (2015). The cultural framework for health: An integrative approach for research and program design and evaluation. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research.

Protocol ID:

180101

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX180101_How_Well_Read_English PX180101020000 How well do you read English? 4 N/A
PX180101_How_Well_Speak_English PX180101010000 How well do you speak English? 4 N/A
PX180101_How_Well_Write_English PX180101030000 How well do you write in English? 4 N/A
PX180101_Language_Speak_With_Family PX180101060000 What language do you speak with most of your family? 4 N/A
PX180101_Language_Speak_With_Friends PX180101050000 What language do you speak with most of your friends? 4 N/A
PX180101_Language_Think_In PX180101070000 In what language do you think? 4 N/A
PX180101_List_Of_Languages PX180101040000 To begin, what primary non-English language or dialect do you speak or understand? 4 N/A
PX180101_List_Of_Languages_Specify PX180101040100 List of Languages: Other Specify 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Acculturation

Release Date:

December 13, 2010

Definition

This measure is used to measure the extent to which an individual (or the children/relatives of an immigrant) who has moved from a non-English-speaking culture/country to an English-speaking one has adopted the culture of the receiving country. Adoption of language is one of several ways to index acculturation.

Purpose

Language use and proficiency are indicators of acculturation. These questions are often used in large studies of immigrant populations to assess how well the individuals have adapted to a new culture.

Keywords

Psychosocial, acculturation, language, culture, immigrant, immigration, National Latino and Asian American Study, NLAAS